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HERRICK CENTER: Our genial and enterprising merchant, A.D. Barnes, has bought a fine jersey cow and promised to take eight fresh air children. He is now looking for a housekeeper, one who has had experience at teaching preferred.
HARFORD: Miss Esther Osborn, who was accidentally shot through the foot, is getting along nicely, although she will not be able to use her foot for some days.
ELK LAKE: The stone wall around the Young cemetery is badly in need of repair. Those interested in the cemetery are endeavoring to raise a fund to relay the wall. Those wishing to contribute to the fund may communicate with E. E. Stevens.
FOREST LAKE: A musical treat in store for the people of Forest City is a recital on the new pipe organ just installed in St. Anthony’s church.
HEART LAKE: What might have been a severe accident occurred to Edward Little yesterday when he shot himself in the arm. Edward and his father, Judge Little, were in the woods hunting and treed a raccoon. The Judge stayed on the ground to catch the ‘coon when he came out and Edward went up the tree with a revolver to shoot it or drive him down. While sitting on a limb the ‘coon stuck his head out of the hole, which startled Edward and he lost his balance and fell to the ground, shooting himself through the fleshy part of the left arm. They immediately started for Montrose, just having time to catch the train and had the wounds dressed by Dr. Wilson.
HALLSTEAD: Burglars operating near Hallstead ransacked the homes of Miles and Clayton Bennett last Saturday. They secured about $50 in cash, a Remington rifle, shotgun and coat and lugged off a couple of pigs. Sufficient information was gathered and Constable Elmer Decker drove to Kingsley and at the Warner home, two miles from that place, they recovered the pigs and the guns. A young daughter was the only occupant of the house, who stated that her parents were away. A man by the name of F. E. Foote, claiming Corning as his home, was found in the cellar drinking cider. He was arrested and continuing the search the guns were found between the mattress of a bed and the stolen pigs in a sty near the house. Foote was taken to the Hallstead lockup. The men, carrying off their plunder, had boarded a Lackawanna freight, turning an angle cock on the air brake and stopping the train suddenly between Foster and Kingsley, where they jumped off. Warner was soon captured and both men were brought to Montrose and placed in jail.
MONTROSE: The Hallstead nine defeated the Montrose Athletics in a game here Wednesday afternoon, the score being 12 to 5. The local team needs practice. Outside the errors there were no features. ALSO A conference will be held at Scranton today between a committee from the town council and the officials of the Consumers’ Water Co., which furnishes the town with water. The object is to secure better quality water, a vegetable growth in the lake having for years, at times, caused a nauseating taste that is most unpleasant. The committee proposes three options: a filtering plant, drive artesian wells or build a concrete dam around the large lake springs, shutting out the other water of the lake in which there is vegetable growth.
BROOKLYN: Brooklyn people are still strongly talking of running a spur of the Lackawanna railroad to their town, connecting with the main line at Foster [Hop Bottom]. The promoters have been negotiating with owners of property, through which the railroad would have to pass, for the right of way, and as the project is being thoroughly agitated and meets with general approval, it would not be surprising to see the branch road within a comparatively short time a reality,
RUSH AND AUBURN: The party of engineers surveying a route between Nichols, N.Y. and Nicholson for the D.L. & W railroad, are now in the townships of Rush and Auburn. In conversation with members of the party, they state that especially heavy grade is encountered near Neath, Bradford county, and they fear that the expense will be so great that it is doubtful if the road is ever put through. As it will shorten the line some thirty-three miles, the officials may think it is money saved to make the cut off.
LYNN: Walter Button and Glen Davis are the two busiest boys we have in this section. They are the joint helpers of Clarence Taylor in the milk station, and often have to arise at 3 a.m. and handle the large consignment of milk that comes in daily to their station.
OAKLEY: On Saturday, June 5, Charles Stevens, of this place, was the victim of a serious accident. While coming from the pasture with his cows at milking time he found it necessary in crossing a creek to walk the stringer of an abandoned bridge, which broke, letting him fall into the water, and the timber falling on his leg broke one bone between the knee and ankle in two places, besides splintering the bone. Dr. A. J. Taylor was called and with the help of a neighbor reduced the fracture. Mr. Stevens is 68 years of age and in feeble health.
EAST DIMOCK: James W. Bunnell is very busy moving buildings these days.
SUSQUEHANNA: Mrs. Julia Carrington has been elected state president of the Women’s Relief Corps. This action was taken at the state encampment at Gettysburg last week. Twelve years ago Susquehanna county was similarly honored, when Mrs. Watson Boyden of that place, was elected president.
FAIRDALE: A great “Fourth of July” celebration will be held on July 3, to which both young and old are invited to come. A full program has been announced by the committee in charge, and a day of sport is assured. At 10 a.m., a fine fantastic parade will begin the doings of the day, to be followed a half hour later by the crossing of bats between the Fairdale nine and fats and leans. At noon dinner will be served by the Ladies’ Aid Society. Races will be a principal afternoon attraction and at 3 o’clock the East Lemon Athletics will wage war and engage in a game against the ferocious Fairdale Tigers. The Silvera Band will play all day.
CLIFFORD: Glenn Bennett, a student at Clark University Worcester, Mass., is home for summer vacation.
LAWSVILLE: Mrs. E. D. Northrup will serve ice cream at her store every Wednesday afternoon and evening and Saturday afternoon and evening during the summer.
WATROUS CORNERS, BRIDGEWATER TWP.: This place was treated to a show last Saturday. It did not stop to pitch its tent, but moved slowly on. It was in the form of a large band of gypsies. Their business of fortune telling was slow, people not caring for the knowledge that they could impart. Their destination was Stone Bridge.
NEWS BRIEF: To bring the coffin containing the body of William Penn, who now reposes in a practically abandoned cemetery in Buckinghamshire, England, to this country and have it interred on the banks of the Delaware river, is the object of a movement just launched in congress. ALSO The Jermyn borough council has passed an ordinance prohibiting the wearing of bells by cows after 10 o’clock at night. Numerous cows roaming the streets during the nocturnal hours make it impossible for residents to sleep, hence the wise provision by the borough fathers to maintain peace in the community.
Several years ago, I tried a drug case involving a defendant who delivered methamphetamine to a confidential informant in his home. The state trooper had searched the confidential informant prior to sending him into the defendant’s home to make certain the confidential informant did not have any controlled substances. By utilizing this procedure, the law enforcement officer assures that the controlled substances came from the defendant’s home. The law enforcement officer did not witness the transaction as it occurred inside the defendant’s home - the only witnesses were the defendant and the confidential informant.
In order to strengthen the case, the state trooper eventually interviewed the defendant outside a local business establishment. The defendant admitted to the trooper that he had delivered the methamphetamine to the confidential informant. After the confession, the trooper filed charges against the defendant and the case went to trial. The defendant contended at trial that he did not deliver the methamphetamine and that he had confessed to the trooper in order to protect his girlfriend because she was the one who did it. Surprisingly, the jury was out for a substantial amount of time before returning a guilty verdict.
After the trial, three jurors came up to my office to discuss an issue with me. Apparently, during the course of the jury deliberations, one of the jurors was contending that the defendant’s rights had been violated because the state trooper had not given him Miranda warnings prior to obtaining the confession. This was never an issue in the trial because the trooper was not legally required to give Miranda warnings in the context that the interview occurred. Miranda rights were never mentioned throughout the entire trial, and the court never instructed the jury to consider the absence of Miranda rights. Eventually, the remaining eleven jurors convinced the hold out that this was not an issue they were supposed to be deliberating on as the court had not instructed the jury to consider it. He relented and the jury convicted.
One of the three jurors in my office was the juror who argued that a constitutional violation had occurred because no Miranda rights had been read to the defendant. I believe that the other two jurors dragged him to my office for clarification (or vindication). I explained that Miranda did not apply to the present situation - and that there were no grounds whatsoever to contend that the confession was unlawfully obtained. After that meeting, I realized that the general public has a skewed view on Miranda rights - and did not truly understand when Miranda rights were legally required to be read to a suspect. Given the television crime shows, movies and novels, this general confusion is easily understood.
What is difficult to understand are reports that the federal government is now requiring Miranda rights to be read in Afghanistan to suspected terrorists captured on the battlefield. It is dubious to contend that the judicially-created Miranda rights would be applicable to a terrorist (or enemy combatant) captured on a battlefield in Afghanistan who is interviewed in order to gain intelligence information. Even if it we were to accept this contention, the United States Supreme Court has always recognized a “public safety” exception to Miranda, i.e., a police officer need not read a suspect Miranda rights when there is an immediate public safety concern. It is difficult to envision any greater public safety threat than that posed by terror suspects - either the imminent and constant danger to our troops in the field in Afghanistan (or elsewhere around the world) or the potential catastrophes resulting from an undiscovered terror plot. Miranda was never intended to place public safety at substantial risk - and yet Miranda may very well end up placing not only our soldiers at risk, but all of us as well.
Please submit any questions, concerns, or comments to Susquehanna County District Attorney’s Office, P.O. Box 218, Montrose, Pennsylvania 18801 or at our website www.SusquehannaCounty-DA.org or discuss this and all articles at http://dadesk.blogspot.com/.
Q. Does massage do anything for you besides relaxation?
Massage therapy - or simply massage - was first employed thousands of years ago. Ancient writings include references to massage in Greece, Japan, China, Egypt, and the Indian subcontinent.
Massage first became popular in the United States during the 19th century. In the middle of the 20th century, advances in medicine overshadowed massage treatment. Then, massage started a revival in the 1970s.
There are more than 80 kinds of massage that manipulate soft tissue. The purpose of massage is to relax the tissue, increase the flow of blood and oxygen, and decrease pain.
The following are some common types of massage therapy:
Shiatsu massage: the therapist applies varying, rhythmic pressure from the fingers on parts of the body that are believed to be important for the flow of a vital energy called qi.
Deep tissue massage: this form of therapy employs patterns of strokes and deep finger pressure on parts of the body where muscles are tight.
Swedish massage: the therapist uses long strokes, kneading, and friction on the muscles. Joints are moved to increase flexibility.
Trigger point massage: this is also known as pressure point massage. The therapist applies deep focused pressure on knots that can form in the muscles and cause symptoms in other parts of the body.
Massage has been found to be effective for patients with these conditions: low back pain, cancer, heart bypass surgery, anxiety, migraines, carpal tunnel syndrome and high blood pressure.
Researchers at Ohio State University tested the benefits of massage. Here are some findings:
Within days, muscles massaged after exercise recovered about 60 percent of their strength. This result compared to recovery of about 14 percent of strength in muscles that were simply rested.
Muscles massaged after exercise had fewer damaged fibers and almost no sign of white blood cells, compared to rested muscles. The absence of white blood cells indicates that the body did not have to work to repair muscle damage after exercise.
The massaged muscles weighed about 8 percent less than the rested muscles, indicating a reduction in swelling.
The American Massage Therapy Association (AMTA) has a national service to locate qualified therapists near you. You can access this service by calling toll-free 1-888-THE-AMTA. Or, you can use the online locator at: http://www.amtamassage.org/findamassage/locator.aspx.
The following are some tips from AMTA to get the most out of a massage:
Don’t eat just before a massage.
Be on time. If you arrive in a rushed state, it may take longer to relax.
Take off only as much clothing as you are comfortable removing. Make sure the clothing that you leave on will allow the therapist to massage you.
If you are allergic to any oils, lotions or powders, tell your massage therapist, who can use a substitute.
During the massage, report any discomfort.
Relax your muscles and your mind during the massage.
Breathe normally to help you relax.
If you’re dizzy or light-headed after the massage, do not get off the table too fast.
Drink extra water after your massage.
If you have a question, please write to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Right now our legislators in Harrisburg are working on the budget for the upcoming year. Cutbacks are the order of the day and one of the areas targeted is library funding. On May 6, the State Senate passed a budget bill that would cut the Public Library Subsidy by 50%. State funding is the largest source of income for our county library system.
The Senate drastic budget bill has proposed cuts in funding for the state library system as a whole that would result in the elimination or reduction of services upon which you depend. In turn, these reductions in state aid could result in a loss to Pennsylvania of as much as 4 million dollars in additional federal funding.
Tough economic times and the projected loss of revenue are the reasons for the proposed reductions. However, the downturn in the economy has resulted in an increased in use of public libraries. Balancing the budget to the detriment of libraries does not make sense. Please note that all of Pennsylvania’s library funding is only a tiny amount of the state budget.
The budget has not yet passed. Libraries throughout the state are asking legislators to revisit the issue of library funding and to reconsider level funding. We urge you to write your elected officials and voice your support for libraries. Stop by your local branch library. They can provide you with the names and addresses of your elected officials and flyer to assist you in drafting a letter.
Spittlebugs: Tiny Bubble-Blowers
Now that we are able to get out and about in our gardens and fields we are suddenly appalled at the masses of foamy spit appearing on many plants. Investigation into these disgusting little masses reveals that they are actually home to small, green insect nymphs. Appropriately, these are known as spittlebugs. Because of their appearance and jumping ability, adult spittlebugs are often called froghoppers.
The creators of these spit masses are squat-shaped, stub-winged nymphs. These larval insects insert their straw-shaped beaks into plant stems and proceed to suck up great amounts of sap. Unlike many other sap-sucking insects, spittlebugs tap into the xylem liquid, which does not contain the sugars produced by the plant leaves. The xylem liquid, on its way up from the plant roots, contains a great deal of water. This excess liquid flows over the nymphs’ bodies. A submerged, newly hatched nymph breathes through a specialized tube, which extends to the tip of its abdomen. The abdominal tip protrudes up and out of the moisture. As the nymphs mature, they use the air expelled through that tube to blow bubbles in the water. As the air is forced out through the tail end, special glands add mucous secretions that strengthen the bubbles. The bubbles are stirred about by finger-like appendages on tip of the abdomen. The nymph’s legs proceed to slide the bubbles around and forward. These foam nests not only hide the soft-bodied insects from predators, but also keep them from drying out.
After about 6 weeks, the mature nymphs stop growing and molt into “pre-adults” with wing buds. At this stage they create new, more gelatinous bubble nests that dry, forming a more protective shelter in which they molt into winged adults. Upon emerging, the adults suck plant juices, but do not form bubble nests, instead just jettisoning the excess liquid forward and away.
Female spittlebugs have narrow, sharp ovipositors for depositing their eggs in plant stems. In September or October the females deposit their eggs in plant stems, generally close to the ground. These eggs overwinter, hatching in early spring. Although the eggs normally hatch in May, the spittle masses don’t usually become noticeable until June. There is only one generation produced per year.
Although there are over a dozen species, the Meadow Spittlebug (Philaenus spumarius) is most commonly encountered spittlebug. A European species that was accidentally introduced into North America, adult Meadow Spittlebugs are extremely variable in coloration and markings. About one quarter inch long; they can be brown, green, yellow or a combination of those colors.
Another commonly observed species is the Pine Spittlebug (Aphrophora cribata), which feeds on the native white pine and other conifers.
Natural predators of spittlebugs include spiders, dragonflies, wasps, mantids, bats and numerous bird species. Spittlebugs primarily feed on goldenrod, red clover, smooth crabgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, and wild strawberries. They can become a nuisance if large populations develop on cultivated strawberries, alfalfa and clover. Spittlebugs rarely reach populations that require intervention. Hosing plants down to wash away the spittle nests is effective in many situations. In extreme cases, application of a carbaryl insecticide such as Sevin™ is recommended.
The diversity in appearances and habits of insects is incredible. Even if you have a strong dislike for “bugs,” you can’t help but be amazed at their natural ability to survive and thrive in a hostile world. Questions, comments and suggestions regarding this article, identifications or any other insect-related matters are welcome. Please email them to email@example.com.
No Food For Thought This Week
Dear EarthTalk: Is it true that military sonar exercises actually kill marine wildlife?
Unfortunately for many whales, dolphins and other marine life, the use of underwater sonar (short for sound navigation and ranging) can lead to injury and even death. Sonar systems - first developed by the U.S. Navy to detect enemy submarines - generate slow-rolling sound waves topping out at around 235 decibels; the world’s loudest rock bands top out at only 130. These sound waves can travel for hundreds of miles under water, and can retain an intensity of 140 decibels as far as 300 miles from their source.
These rolling walls of noise are no doubt too much for some marine wildlife. While little is known about any direct physiological effects of sonar waves on marine species, evidence shows that whales will swim hundreds of miles, rapidly change their depth (sometime leading to bleeding from the eyes and ears), and even beach themselves to get away from the sounds of sonar.
In January 2005, 34 whales of three different species became stranded and died along North Carolina’s Outer Banks during nearby offshore Navy sonar training. Other sad examples around the coast of the U.S. and elsewhere abound, notably in recent years with more sonar testing going on than ever before. According to the nonprofit Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), which has campaigned vigorously to ban use of the technology in waters rich in marine wildlife, recent cases of whale strandings likely represent a small fraction of sonar’s toll, given that severely injured animals rarely make it to shore.
In 2003, NRDC spearheaded a successful lawsuit against the Navy to restrict the use of low-frequency sonar off the coast of California. Two years later a coalition of green groups led by NRDC and including the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW), the League for Coastal Protection, Cetacean Society International, and Ocean Futures Society upped the ante, asking the federal courts to also restrict testing of more intense, harmful and far ranging mid-frequency types of sonar off Southern California’s coastline.
In filing their brief, the groups cited Navy documents which estimated that such testing would kill some 170,000 marine mammals and cause permanent injury to more than 500 whales, not to mention temporary deafness for at least 8,000 others. Coalition lawyers argued that the Navy’s testing was in violation of the National Environmental Policy Act, the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered Species Act.
Two lower courts upheld NRDC’s claims, but the Supreme Court ruled that the Navy should be allowed to continue the use of some mid-frequency sonar testing for the sake of national security. “The decision places marine mammals at greater risk of serious and needless harm,” says NRDC’s Joel Reynolds.
Environmental groups are still fighting the battle against the sonar, lobbying the government to curtail testing, at least during peacetime, or to at least ramp up testing gradually to give marine wildlife a better chance to flee affected areas. “The U.S. Navy could use a number of proven methods to avoid harming whales when testing mid-frequency sonar,” reports IFAW’s Fred O'Regan. “Protecting whales and preserving national security are not mutually exclusive.”
CONTACTS: NRDC, www.nrdc.org; IFAW, www.ifaw.org.
Dear EarthTalk: How does the microwave compare in energy use, say, to using a gas or electric stove burner to heat water for a cup of tea?
The short answer is that it depends upon several variables, including the price of electricity versus gas, and the relative efficiency of the appliances involved. Typically, though, a microwave would be slightly more efficient at heating water than the flame on a gas stove, and should use up a little less energy. The reason: The microwave’s heat waves are focused on the liquid (or food) inside, not on heating the air or container around it, meaning that most if not all of the energy generated is used to make your water ready.
Given this logic, it is hard to believe that a burner element on an electric stovetop would be any better, but an analysis by Home Energy Magazine found otherwise. The magazine’s researchers discovered that an electric burner uses about 25 percent less electricity than a microwave in boiling a cup of water.
That said, the difference in energy saved by using one method over another is negligible: Choosing the most efficient process might save a heavy tea drinker a dollar or so a year. “You’d save more energy over the year by replacing one light bulb with a CFL [compact fluorescent lightbulb] or turning off the air conditioner for an hour - not an hour a day, one hour at some point over the whole year,” says consumer advocate Michael Bluejay.
Although a microwave may not save much energy or money over a stove burner when heating water, it can be much more energy-efficient than a traditional full-size oven when it comes to cooking food. For starters, because their heat waves are concentrated on the food, microwaves cook and heat much faster than traditional ovens. According to the federal government’s Energy Star program, which rates appliances based on their energy-efficiency, cooking or re-heating small portions of food in the microwave can save as much as 80 percent of the energy used to cook or warm them up in the oven.
The website Treehugger.com reports that there are other things you can do to optimize your energy efficiency around the kitchen when cooking. For starters, make sure to keep the inside surfaces of your microwave oven clean so as to maximize the amount of energy reflected toward your food. On a gas stovetop, make sure the flame is fully below the cookware; likewise, on an electric stovetop, make sure the pan or kettle completely covers the heating element to minimize wasted heat. Also, use the appropriate size pan for the job at hand, as smaller pans are cheaper and more energy-efficient to heat up.
Despite these tips for cooking greener, Bluejay reiterates that most of us will hardly put a dent in our overall energy use just by choosing one appliance over another. According to his analysis, for someone who bakes three hours a week the cheapest cooking method saves only an estimated $2.06/month compared to the most expensive method.
“Focusing on cooking methods is not the way to save electricity [at home],” says Bluejay. “You should look at heating, cooling, lighting and laundry instead.”
CONTACTS: Home Energy Magazine, www.homeenergy.org; Treehugger, www.treehugger.com; Michael Bluejay, www.michaelbluejay.com.
Send Your Environmental Questions To: EarthTalk, P.O. Box 5098, Westport, CT 06881; firstname.lastname@example.org. Read past columns at: www.emagazine.com/earthtalk/archives.php.
National Scoliosis Awareness Week
June 14 - 20
Barnes-Kasson Hospital is observing National Scoliosis Awareness Week, June 14 through 20. The term “scoliosis” is used to describe an abnormal curve in the spine. Scoliosis alone is not a disease or a diagnosis; it is simply a curve of the spine that can be caused by congenital, developmental or degenerative problems. However, most cases of scoliosis are labeled as idiopathic, meaning that the cause is unknown, and the spine curves for no apparent reason.
Idiopathic Scoliosis is broken up into three age groups, infantile, juvenile and adolescent scoliosis. Infantile occurs during the first years of life, from birth to three years of age. Juvenile occurs from three to nine years old. Adolescent occurs from 10 to 18 years old and accounts for 80% of all idiopathic cases. In total, idiopathic scoliosis occurs in approximately one half million adolescents in the United States alone.
The risk of developing scoliosis is increased during the adolescent years, when the body goes through major growth spurts. Scoliosis is much more prevalent in girls than it is in boys; girls are approximately eight times more likely to need treatment for scoliosis, because they tend to have curves that are much more likely to progress.
Scoliosis treatment heavily depends on the age of the patient and the severity of the curve in the spine. If the curve is less than 10 degrees, then it is not even considered to be scoliosis. But if the curve continues to expand, then treatment may be required. Treatment for curves less than 45 degrees in skeletally immature patients usually consists of wearing a back brace for months or years to prevent the curve from growing further. If the curve would be allowed to continue to grow, scoliosis surgery could become necessary. Scoliosis surgery is designed to reduce the patient’s curvature and fuse the spine to prevent any further progression of the deformity. Usually, about a 50% correction can be obtained with surgery using modern techniques in which hooks and screws are applied to the spine to anchor long rods. The rods are then used to reduce and hold the spine while bone that is added fuses together.
For the most part, patients can return to a normal lifestyle a few months after surgery. While the deformity cannot yet be completely corrected, there can be a severe improvement on the intensity of the curve, improving physical stature and emotional confidence.
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