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FOWLER HILL, Auburn Township: While returning from taking her children to school, as is her usual custom, Mrs. James Marbaker was driving slowly along, when all at once her horse made a sudden spring and broke into a run. Mrs. Marbaker was taken by surprise and before she could stop him the horse had its head down and was beyond control. He ran nearly a quarter of a mile, when the cutter struck a knoll and threw her out. H. S. Hitchcock saw the horse coming and managed to catch the lines, but was thrown and dragged several feet before he succeeded in stopping the horse. Neither Mrs. Marbaker or Mr. Hitchcock were seriously hurt. Nothing could be found that had frightened the horse.
BROOKLYN: The members of the Order of the American Boy and the girls of the order of the N. C. E. will attend a service at the Universalist church next Sunday morning, when Rev. Drury will address them on “The Boys and Girls of Yesterday.”
GREAT BEND: The death of Mrs. Floyd Smith, which occurred at her home Saturday evening, was a shock to the community. Sunday, Jan. 17, she gave birth to a little daughter and both were doing nicely. On Tuesday she had a slight chill, when blood poisoning set in, and from that time she grew rapidly worse until death claimed her. She is survived by her husband, two little boys and the infant daughter, besides her aunt, Mrs. Olive Harding, with whom she resided and her parents, two brothers and one sister. Funeral services were held from the Methodist church Monday afternoon, with burial in Woodlawn cemetery.
ALFORD: Mrs. Theresa West passed the 81st mill-stone of life Sunday, Jan. 17. She enjoys good health, and has pieced a number of valuable bed quilts, the past year.
HERRICK CENTER: Harry Lumley, of Lestershire, formerly of Herrick Center, and a grandson of late Zenas Hall, of Pleasant Mount, is to manage the Brooklyn National League baseball team next season. Lumley has been famous as a ball player for several years.
LYNN, Springville Twp.: The farmers in the vicinity of Springville have made arrangements to start a co-operative creamery at the old milk station and will commence operations on April 1st. AND: E. W. Lott, of Springville, was appointed to a clerkship in the House of Representatives. This was the only appointment coming to this Congressional district this year, while last term Susquehanna county secured three appointments, one for Susquehanna county, one for Bradford and one for Wyoming.
SUSQUEHANNA: The terminal of the Jefferson division of the Erie will be at Susquehanna instead of Carbondale, as heretofore. All train and engine crews will lay over at Susquehanna. This means that that place will gain about 25 families and a similar number of unmarried men.
FAIRDALE: Joseph Steiger says he has taken the Democrat ever since he was 18 years old and now he will be 83 years old, the 12th of next March 1909. Last fall he dug potatoes and cut corn as fast as his hired man did, also has voted the democratic ticket both spring and fall and never missed an election. Mr. Steiger says his father lived to the age of 100 years. Augustus Steiger, Joseph’s son, is following right along in the same democratic faith and has voted 34 years and never missed a caucus or missed casting his vote in that length of time.
BROOKLYN: It is reported that Mr. and Mrs. Robert Snyder (nee Emma Eldredge, of Brooklyn) were passengers on the steamship Republic, just starting on a wedding trip to Europe, when it was rammed by the Florida and sunk, though the passengers were rescued. Their baggage was lost.
BROOKDALE: An Industrial School is being conducted here. Mr. and Mrs. P. L. Shelp have charge of the institution and there are about 20 children in it. It has been located there for less than a year, opening during the summer in the large building once used as an acid factory and which was donated for that purpose by Mr. Corbett the owner. A great deal of good is being accomplished, and the children are given the best of care and instruction. The Pentecostal Mission in Binghamton sends many of the children there and assists largely on supporting the school. The charter has been applied for.
ARARAT: Marvin Sampson, of Burnwood, while in town left his horses while he was in I. F. Potter’s store. They became frightened and ran away and were stopped when they got nearly home; no damage done must be they got tired of waiting.
ELK LAKE: Three of Elwood Griswold’s children are sick with scarlet fever. One of the children died on Saturday and the burial took place at South Montrose.
CLIFFORD: John Lee, an aged citizen, and over three quarters of a century a resident of this place, died at Hamburg, Pa, recently from injuries sustained at the hands of football players. Mr. Lee had been opposed to football playing for some years, but during the autumn season he stopped to watch a game while visiting his son, E. N. Lee, in Hamburg. He was a man of 85 years and when the players came on with a rush he was unable to get out of their way. He was caught in the struggling mass, four players falling upon him. When picked up he was unconscious and one of his legs was broken. The fracture rapidly healed, but the shock he had sustained proved too much, heart trouble resulting in his death. Mr. Lee was one of Clifford’s prosperous farmers and was a former gravity road employee. He was an ardent Republican and took such interest in politics, that despite his age he attended the inauguration of Roosevelt four years ago.
HALLSTEAD: The members of the ladies’ class in physical culture under the direction of Garabad Bedrosian, of Binghamton, who have been permitted the use of the gymnasium at the Y.M.C.A., on Wednesday evenings and Saturday afternoons, have perfected their organization and elected Miss Maude Capwell as their president and Miss Grace Knoeller as their vice president.
FOREST CITY: John Sosensko is making arrangements to construct a modern hotel on Main street in this place. It will be a three-story frame structure, 46x65 feet with 36 sleeping apartments. It will cost abut $12,000
During the 2000-2001 school year, a 5-year old girl began kindergarten in the Barnstable School District. According to her, she began to experience problems on the school bus as there was a third grade boy who was making her pull her dress up. She told her parents about the problem and they reported it to the school district. The school district then interviewed the bus driver, other students and the bully. Because they were unable to corroborate the little girl’s version, no disciplinary action was taken.
The little girl then provided additional details, contending that the bully would make her pull down her underpants and spread her legs. The school district was again notified and another investigation occurred where the bully and other students were again interviewed. The school also notified the local police department and an independent investigation was conducted. The police department determined that there was insufficient evidence to proceed with any criminal charges against the boy. After discussing the matter with the police and reviewing the school’s own investigation, the school determined that there was insufficient evidence to support any discipline. The school, however, suggested that the little girl could be moved to another school bus or, if the parents did not want the little girl on another bus, the school suggested leaving several rows of seats empty between the kindergarten and older students. The parents did not agree and demanded that the boy be moved to a different bus or the school put an adult monitor on the bus. As the school and the parents could not agree, the parents began driving their little girl to school. The parents also followed with a federal lawsuit contending that the little girl had been subjected to sexual harassment and discrimination.
In particular, the parents alleged that the little girl’s constitutional rights had been violated, as the school district had engaged in “discriminatory treatment in the investigation of student behavior and in the treatment of student complaints.” The parents’ complaint had two components, a claim under Title IX relating to gender discrimination in education, and a claim based upon alleged violation of the little girl’s constitutional right to equal protection (which is known as a Section 1983 Claim). The gist of the complaint centered on the contention that the school district was treating the little girl differently than they would have treated a little boy making a similar complaint.
The lower courts dismissed the constitutional (Section 1982) claim, determining that the parents could not proceed with the constitutional claim as Title IX was the sole remedy available to them for alleged discriminatory acts by the public school district. In other words, Congress had specifically addressed gender discrimination in public education when it enacted Title IX, and that this remedy superseded any generic allegation of a constitutional violation. As to the Title IX claim, the lower courts concluded that the response of the school district had been objectively reasonable, and, as such, there was no claim for discrimination. The case was dismissed.
The parents continued to the United States Supreme Court, but the issue became a very limited one – whether or not Title IX provided to sole means of relief for alleged discrimination in public education. On January 21, 2009, a unanimous United Supreme Court determined that Congress had never made clear any intention that Title IX preempted the ability to pursue an alleged constitutional violation under Section 1983. In other words, Congress never included specific statutory language that Title IX would be the sole remedy for alleged discrimination in a public educational facility. The holding in the case will likely not change the outcome in that the lower courts have already determined that the school district acted in an objectively reasonable manner so as to preclude any suggestion that a constitutional right was violated. The holding is significant, as it provides an additional litigation weapon for disgruntled parents to utilize against public schools for discriminatory conduct. If you ever thought being a school administrator was not difficult, think again.
Please submit any questions, concerns, or comments to Susquehanna County District Attorney’s Office, P.O. Box 218, Montrose, Pennsylvania 18801 or at our website www.SusquehannaCounty-DA.org or discuss this and all articles at http://dadesk.blogspot.com/.
Q. I’m having surgery and I’m afraid that the doctor will operate on the wrong side of my body. Is there anything I can do to prevent this?
Absolutely. Ask your surgeon to mark the site of the operation. Some surgical organizations recommend that their members use a marking pen on patients. Don't be reluctant to request this service to make your surgery safe.
Surgery is a topic that requires more than one column. Today we’ll discuss surgeons and healthcare facilities. In our next column, we’ll cover the surgery itself.
Every year, more than 15 million Americans have surgery. The process of surgery, from the initial questions to the recovery is complex. Probably the most important decision to be made is the choice of surgeon.
The American College of Surgeons (ACS) recommends that you look for a surgeon who is board certified and a fellow of the college.
Specialty boards certify physicians who meet published standards. For physicians to become board certified in a surgical specialty, they must complete the required years of residency training in that specialty, and then pass a comprehensive examination.
The specialty boards issue certificates that are valid for six to ten years. To retain certification, physicians must become recertified and must show continuing education in their specialty.
Fellows of the ACS are board-certified surgeons whose education, training, professional qualifications, surgical competence, and ethical conduct have been found to be consistent with the college’s standards. The letters “FACS” after a surgeon's name stands for Fellow of the American College of Surgeons.
If you want to know about a surgeon, you can phone your state or county medical association for help. Or you can just ask a prospective surgeon to provide credentials. Often, you can find the information you need hanging in frames on a surgeon’s office walls.
In addition to having credentials, your surgeon should have a lot of experience performing your operation. You should ask any prospective surgeon about his or her track record doing your procedure.
You should have your surgery done in an accredited healthcare facility.
Hospitals are accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). Surgical centers are accredited by the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAH) and JCAHO. Cancer treatment facilities are approved by the Commission on Cancer (CoC).
Most surgeons work at one or two local hospitals. Find out where your surgery will be done, and how often the same operation is done there. Research shows that patients often do better when they have surgery in hospitals with more experience in the operation.
Ask your doctor about the success rate at the hospitals you can choose between. The success rate is the number of patients who improve, divided by all patients having that operation at a hospital.
It is a common medical practice to get a second opinion about surgery. With a second opinion, you will get expert advice from another surgeon who knows about treating your medical problem. Don’t be reluctant to get more than one opinion.
Medicare may help pay for a second opinion. If you have a private supplemental health insurance plan, find out if it covers a second opinion.
If you have a question, please write to email@example.com.
No Straight From Starrucca This Week
Bristletails: scurrying fossils
Common, yet rarely seen, bristletails are an unusual group of household pests. Placed in the insect order Thysanura, there are about 450 known species worldwide, with 30 found in North America. These strange looking, prehistoric-like insects seek dark, damp environments near an available source of starchy or moldy food. Two different insects are included in this group, silverfish and firebrats. Silverfish are shiny and covered with tiny scales. Firebrats are similar, but are mottled gray. The scales protect the insects by providing a slippery texture that enables them to escape the grasp of such enemies as ants and spiders. The scales also help to prevent moisture loss. Both insects have 2 long antennae on their heads and 3 long, tail-like structures extending from their abdomens. Both silverfish and firebrats are wingless and have chewing mouthparts. They are about one-half inch long when fully grown. Their bodies are flattened, thus facilitating their ability to crawl into and hide in cracks and crevices.
These strange insects are active at night, but avoid light, hiding during the day. If accidentally exposed in their hiding places, they will rapidly dart away, seeking to escape exposure to the light. Silverfish prefer cool, damp locations and can often be found under or around sinks and bathtubs. Other areas frequented include bookcases, closet shelves and behind baseboards and window frames. Firebrats prefer hot, dark locations, such as attics or around fireplaces, hot water heaters and furnaces. They thrive in locations with a temperature near 90 degrees F. Although they lack wings, silverfish and firebrats still enjoy widespread distribution, due to people’s common habit of moving cardboard boxes, filled with treasured possessions, from location to location.
Both silverfish and firebrats feed on materials that are rich in protein, sugar or starch. They particularly like items that contain glue or paste. This can include wallpaper and book bindings. They often feed on wallpaper, chewing small irregular-shaped holes in the paper to access the underlying paste. They also will feed on natural textiles as well as surface molds. Firebrats particularly like rayon. Neither silverfish nor firebrats feed on wool. Silverfish also feed on dead and injured insects, including other silverfish. They are one of the few insects capable of digesting cellulose without the symbiotic aid of protozoa in their gut.
Silverfish are long-lived. They are capable of going months without food. Reproduction involves external fertilization. The male produces silken threads upon which he deposits sperm packets. Following a “dancing” courtship ritual, the female picks up the packets and deposits them in her ovipositor. One to three eggs are deposited in cracks and crevices. Depending on the season and temperature, the eggs will hatch in about 20 to 40 days. The immature silverfish molt 10 times before reaching maturity. Again, temperature and food availability determine the length of time needed to reach adulthood. Adults continue to molt throughout the rest of their lives.
Although rarely a serious problem, household invasions by either silverfish or firebrats can be annoying. While total control is difficult, a combination of techniques can be effective in limiting their presence in the home. The reduction of available food sources is very important. Cereals, flour, pet foods and other starch products should be kept in tight containers. Areas prone to crumbs, flour spills and other organic matter should be kept swept and vacuumed. Sources of moisture should be eliminated. Repairing leaking pipes, using dehumidifiers and controlling sources of condensation are all effective in reducing favorable silverfish habitats. The use of spackle, caulking and spray foam to eliminate cracks, crevices and holes will further discourage the inhabitation of both firebrats and silverfish. In the rare cases of serious infestation, direct application of insecticides may be needed. The application of diatomaceous earth to crevices in the areas of invasion may be effective in drying out both the insects and their habitat. Applications of synthetic pyrethroids, such as cypermethrin or deltamethrin, are also effective.
It is interesting that living among us are creatures whose ancestors predate the dinosaurs. Thankfully, since they are in our basements and under our sinks, they didn’t inherit the size of those ancient “critters.”
Questions, comments and suggestions regarding this article, identifications or any other insect-related matters are welcome. Please email them to firstname.lastname@example.org.
No Food For Thought This Week
Dear EarthTalk: Is it true that some baby bottles contain chemicals that can cause health problems for babies? If so, how can I find alternatives that are safer?
Amy Gorman, Berkeley, CA
No links connecting specific human illnesses to chemicals oozing out of baby bottles have been proven definitively. Nonetheless, many parents are heeding the call of scientists to switch to products with less risk. A 2008 report by American and Canadian environmental researchers entitled “Baby’s Toxic Bottle” found that plastic polycarbonate baby bottles leach dangerous levels of Bisphenol-A (BPA), a synthetic chemical that mimics natural hormones and can send bodily processes into disarray, when heated.
All six of the leading brands of baby bottles tested – Avent, Disney/The First Years, Dr. Brown’s, Evenflo, Gerber and Playtex – leaked what researchers considered dangerous amounts of BPA. The report calls on major retailers selling these bottles – including Toys “R” Us, Babies “R” Us, CVS, Target, Walgreen’s and Wal-Mart – to switch to safer products.
According to the report, BPA is a “developmental, neural and reproductive toxicant that mimics estrogen and can interfere with healthy growth and body function.” Researchers cite numerous animal studies demonstrating that the chemical can damage reproductive, neurological and immune systems during critical stages of development. It has also been linked to breast cancer and to the early onset of puberty.
So what’s a concerned parent to do? Glass bottles are a tried-and-true chemical-free solution, and they are widely available, though very breakable. To the rescue are several companies making BPA-free plastic bottles (out of either PES/polyamide or polypropylene instead of polycarbonate). Some of the leaders are BornFree, thinkbaby, Green to Grow, Nuby, Momo Baby, Mother’s Milkmate and Medela’s. These brands are available at natural food stores, directly from manufacturers, or from online vendors.
Most of the major brands selling BPA-containing bottles are now also offering or planning to offer BPA-free versions of their products. Consumers should read labels and packaging carefully to make sure that any product they are considering buying says unequivocally that it does not contain the chemical.
Unfortunately, switching to a BPA-free bottle is no guarantee the chemical won’t make its way into your baby’s bloodstream anyway. BPA is one of the 50 most-produced chemicals in the world. According to the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), it is used in everything from plastic water jugs labeled #7 to plastic take-out containers, baby bottles and canned food liners. It is so omnipresent that the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) has found that 95 percent of Americans have the chemical in their urine.
Also, nursing mothers – especially those who haven’t discarded their old BPA-containing Nalgene water bottles – may be passing the chemical along through their breast milk. And if that weren’t enough, BPA is also used in the lining of many metal liquid baby formula cans. The nonprofit Environmental Working Group (EWG) has posted email links to the consumer affairs offices of the major formula manufacturers so concerned parents can ask them to remove BPA from their product offerings and packaging.
Dear EarthTalk: How much “old growth” forest is left in the United States and is it all protected from logging at this point?
John Foye, via e-mail
As crazy as it sounds, no one really knows how much old growth is left in America’s forested regions, mainly because various agencies and scientists have different ideas about how to define the term. Generally speaking, “old growth” refers to forests containing trees often hundreds, sometimes thousands, of years old. But even when there is agreement on a specific definition, differences in the methods used to inventory remaining stands of old growth forest can produce major discrepancies. Or so complains the National Commission on Science for Sustainable Forestry (NCSSF) in its recent report, “Beyond Old Growth: Older Forests in a Changing World.”
In 1991, for example, the U.S. Forest Service and the nonprofit Wilderness Society each released its own inventory of old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest and northern California. They both used the Forest Service’s definition based on the number, age and density of large trees per acre, the characteristics of the forest canopy, the number of dead standing trees and fallen logs and other criteria. However, because each agency used different remote sensing techniques to glean data, the Forest Service came up with 4.3 million acres of old-growth and the Wilderness Society found only two million acres.
The NCSSF also studied the data, and they concluded that 3.5 million acres (or six percent) of the region’s 56.8 million acres of forest qualified as old growth – that is, largely trees over 30 inches in diameter with complex forest canopies. By broadening the definition to include older forest with medium-diameter trees and both simple and complex canopies, NCSSF said their figure would go up substantially.
In other parts of the country, less than one percent of Northeast forest is old growth, though mature forests that will become old growth in a few decades are more abundant. The Southeast has even less acreage – a 1993 inventory found about 425 old growth sites across the region, equaling only a half a percent of total forest area. The Southwest has only a few scattered pockets of old-growth (mostly Ponderosa Pine), but for the most part is not known for its age-old trees. Old-growth is even scarcer in the Great Lakes.
It is hard to say whether the remaining pockets of scattered old-growth in areas besides the Pacific Northwest will remain protected, but environmentalists are working hard to save what they can in northern California, Oregon and Washington. The outgoing Bush administration recently announced plans to increase logging across Oregon’s remaining old-growth reserves by some 700 percent, in effect overturning the landmark Northwest Forest Plan of 1994 that set aside most of the region’s remaining old growth as habitat for the endangered spotted owl.
Protecting remaining old-growth is important for many reasons. “These areas provide some of the cleanest drinking water in the world, critical salmon and wildlife habitat, world-class recreational opportunities and critical carbon storage in our fight against global warming,” says Jonathan Jelen of the nonprofit Oregon Wild, adding that as much as 20 percent of the emissions related to global warming can be attributed to deforestation and poor forest management. “A growing body of evidence is showing the critical role that forests – and old-growth forests in particular – can play in mitigating climate change.”
CONTACTS: NCSSF, http://ncseonline.org/NCSSF/; Oregon Wild, www.oregonwild.org
GOT AN ENVIRONMENTAL QUESTION? Send it to: EarthTalk, c/o E/The Environmental Magazine, P.O. Box 5098, Westport, CT 06881; submit it at: www.emagazine.com/earthtalk/thisweek/ or e-mail: email@example.com. Read past columns at: www.emagazine.com/earthtalk/archives.php.
Barnes-Kasson Hospital is observing National Winter Safety Week, January 25 through 31.
Here in the snowier region of Pennsylvania, we are accustomed to harsh winters and most of us know all too well the dangers of it. One of the most common of these dangers is falling and slipping on snow and ice.
Falls from snow and ice can lead to broken or fractured bones, sore or torn muscles, and even internal bleeding. According to the National Safety Council (NSC) 16,000 Americans die each year from falls. The number one at-home accident in the US is a tie between falls and poisoning. Although the number of injuries and deaths from falls due to winter conditions is not recorded by the NSC, safety experts agree that most injuries result from falls on ice-covered surfaces.
Falling on ice doesn’t have to result in painful consequences. Knowing how to prevent falls and protect yourself is key in being safe while walking on ice. Start by wearing boots or overshoes with soles and to avoid walking in shoes that have smooth soles. The smoothness on the shoe will increase the risk of slipping. Try to walk cautiously, keeping your arms out of your pockets for balance. Keeping your hands out will allow you something to fall on in case you do slip, which can help prevent more major traumas, such as a broken or fractured hip.
If you do start to fall while walking on ice, it is important to remember to keep your head from hitting the ground. Try to land so that the palms of your hands hit the ground before any other part of our body does, almost as if your hands were “slapping” the ground.
Barnes-Kasson Hospital would like to remind you to be safe and warm this winter when shoveling snow, and to try to avoid injury as much as possible.
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