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HERRICK CENTRE: If some of our young men, while out sleigh riding, would pay more attention to the horse and less to the girl, it would save them the trouble of looking up their blankets, robes, cushions, etc.
HARFORD: The Y.P.S.E., of the Congregational church, will hold a warm sugar social at the church parlors, Friday evening. Warm sugar ten cents a dish. One of the features of the evening’s entertainment will be an old fashioned spelling school.
BUNNEL HILL, Auburn Twp.: Morris LaBarre died at the home of his son, John, at Sayre, March 2, aged 83. This sudden death reminds that another aged resident of Bunnel Hill has passed away, he having formerly resided there for over 50 years. He was a carpenter by trade and much of his work still stands as a monument in that place. He built the house now occupied by Marble Capwell, nearly 54 years ago, also several others since that time. He was a deacon in the Baptist church at South Auburn. One by one they are drifting away until only two of the older residents are left there on the hill and the middle aged will fill in the vacant places, until the summons comes.
MONTROSE: The large Turrell residence on Lake Avenue will be opened to summer visitors the coming season, making an ideal boarding place. AND: Prof. J. S. Hosterman is already making preparations for the High School prize speaking contest, an annual event which always excites considerable interest locally. This year an innovation is to be introduced by allowing the young ladies to compete as well, and medals instead of cash prizes will be offered.
HEART LAKE: Franz T. Mack has leased the H. E. Griffing store, picnic grounds and boating facilities at Heart Lake for the coming summer and will take charge May 1. With this is also included a large cottage for rent to parties wishing same, a barn well equipped for stabling, merry-go-round and other amusements. Mr. Mack will keep a full line of groceries, baked stuffs, candies, fruits, cigars, etc., and conduct, in conjunction with the store, the ice cream parlors and soda fountain. He is a young man with many years of experience to back him in the venture. He will make special prices to Sunday Schools wishing grounds and boats for picnic purposes and intends having everything neat, clean and up-to-date.
KINGSLEY: E. A. Smith has recently established an up-to-date meat market in this place, which is doing a thriving business.
LAWSVILLE: Mrs. Earl Bailey is confined to the bed from an injury caused by her skirts catching in the brake, as she was about to alight from a wagon Sunday morning. She was thrown violently and received severe injuries.
NEW MILFORD: Miss Nina Taft, one of our most popular teachers, has entered a contest in the Binghamton Republican, by which she hopes to win a scholarship in the Syracuse University of Music.
FOREST CITY: A boxing contest between Peter Shorunis, of local fame, and a tow headed youth named Jacobs, who hails from New York, or there-abouts, was pulled off in the Odd Fellow’s Hall last evening. It consisted of six rounds. The local man saved his energies until the last two rounds and then “let drive.” Altogether it was a fair specimen of amateur boxing. To give the affair a judicial look a number of the town’s officials and professional men graced the audience with their presence. The game was called as a “draw.”
SILVER LAKE: The Rose Brothers' sawmill is now running on full time.
EAST RUSH: H. C. Estus, the oldest resident in this vicinity, is able to walk out to the store in good weather. He resides on the farm his father settled upon nearly 100 years ago. Many have been the changes in that time.
DIMOCK: The large Chase stone quarry has resumed work again. AND: After nearly a year’s trial of different preachers, Dimock has at last secured Elder Downing, of Wilkes-Barre, as pastor for the Baptist church. He will move here April 1 with his family.
LENOXVILLE: Sugar making and muddy roads are in order nowadays.
WELCH HILL, Clifford Twp.: Mr. and Mrs. Henry D. Jones, Mr. and Mrs. Benj. Morgan and Mr. Alfred Jones attended a cantata at Lenoxville on Saturday evening, given by Prof. Sophia’s singing class.
FLYNN, Middletown Twp.: The Flynn graded school closed its doors some time since. The thing now to be considered is which received the most for the time--the teacher or the pupils. As it costs the township about $18 per scholar, at our school, for six months, might as well send them to Montrose.
HOPBOTTOM: Work began Monday in the Green and Lindsey stone quarry.
SUSQUEHANNA: The following pension claims, through the agency of R. H. Hall, have been allowed: Edgar Strain, Starrucca, re-rated from $3 to $12 per month from 1892; Horace Burchel, increase from $6 to $10; Albert Packer, original Spanish war, $6 per mo.; Andrew Slater, $6 to $12; John W. McLaud, Starrucca, $12 to $17; Frank M. Tracy, Binghamton, $10 to $24; D. G. Wooster, Oakland, $24 to $30; Ira B. Davis, $12 to $17; Melvin Larrabee, Jackson $12 to $24.
FRANKLIN TWP.: Daniel Webster, formerly of this place, went to California a few days ago. We now learn that he has joined the U. S. Navy for four years. Quite a number of the warships are in harbor there at present.
NEWS BRIEFS: Carpet Cleaning: Take half a dozen large potatoes, which will be enough for the carpet of one room, grate them and rub well with a dry rag into the carpet; then take a cloth wrung out of hot water and wipe off thoroughly and your carpet will look like new.
Dick Heller is a 65-year old federal security guard in Washington, D.C. As part of his employment, Mr. Heller wears a handgun all day, but, at the end of the day, he cannot take it home. The reason is a 1976 local law that totally prohibits citizens from owning handguns in Washington, D.C. When Heller was told he could not take his gun home, he filed a lawsuit challenging the constitutionality of the local prohibition, and the case has finally made its way to the United States Supreme Court.
The case centers upon the meaning of the Second Amendment to the Constitution, which reads: “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.” The Supreme Court has not considered a Second Amendment case for almost seven decades, and the Supreme Court has never specifically held that the Second Amendment assures the individual right to possess a firearm.
The arguments are relatively simple. On Mr. Heller’s side, it is argued that the Second Amendment specifically creates an individual constitutional right to possess a firearm, thus the language “the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.” On the city’s side, the argument is that the Second Amendment relates not to individual rights, but a collective right of the States to maintain militias, as noted by the prefatory language “a well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State.” Does the Second Amendment guarantee an individual right to possess a firearm, or does it provide a collective right to the states to maintain militias?
The Second Amendment was drafted and ratified approximately 220 years ago. From a historical perspective, it is amazing that we are still trying to determine exactly what it means two centuries later. Thus, the parties are delving into the historical underpinnings of the Amendment to demonstrate the intent of the Founding Fathers. Aside from the historical arguments, there is a grammar argument that centers upon the placement of the relative phrases within the amendment and the manner in which the commas were used. Even this grammar approach resulted in historical arguments, i.e., how did the Founding Fathers use commas and phrases. One thing is probably certain: the Founding Fathers likely never anticipated that those 27 simple words would result in so much uncertainty.
The Supreme Court recently heard oral arguments on the case, and, according to legal analysts, it appears that the Supreme Court will recognize the existence of an individual right to bear arms. In particular, it is believed that five justices will conclude that the Second Amendment confers an individual right to bear arms (Roberts, Scalia, Kennedy, Thomas, and Alito). On the other hand, two justices appeared committed to the proposition that the Second Amendment applied only to a collective right in the context of militias (Stevens and Souter). From the context of the arguments, the commentators were uncertain where the final two justices (Ginsburg and Breyer) would fall.
Even if the Supreme Court finally recognizes an individual right to bear arms, the case would not necessarily be resolved. The question would then be whether the government’s interference with that right was appropriate. In other words, the government has the ability to interfere with personal rights in limited circumstances. For instance, while you may have a right to free speech, you do not have the right to yell “fire” in a crowded theater. In that context, the right to free speech is outweighed by the government’s interest in maintaining order and assuring public safety.
Thus, Washington, D.C. needs to provide an adequate justification for the decision to ban handguns that outweighs the individual right to possess a firearm. During the oral argument, the city asserted that its justification was that people commit crimes with handguns, and, in Washington, the level of urban violence committed with handguns is significant. Heller immediately countered that position by noting that his right to possess a firearm for self-defense was increasingly important in a place like Washington, D.C., where urban violence is so severe and widespread. No matter the outcome of the decision – it will have a historical impact upon the gun debate in the United States.
Please submit any questions, concerns, or comments to Susquehanna County District Attorney’s Office, P.O. Box 218, Montrose, Pennsylvania 18801 or at www.SusquehannaCounty-DA.org.
Q. I’m 67 years old and my hip is in bad shape. I’ve heard there’s a new way to fix your hip without replacing it. What is it?
There is a surgical alternative to total hip replacement. It’s called hip resurfacing.
The hip is a ball-and-socket joint. The ball is at the top of the femur (thigh bone), and the socket is in the pelvis. In hip replacement surgery, the ball is replaced with a metal or ceramic substitute. The socket is fitted with a metal cup to hold the new ball.
The primary difference in hip resurfacing is that the surgeon doesn’t remove the femoral ball. Instead, the damaged ball is reshaped, and then a metal cap is anchored over it.
Hip resurfacing is at least as hard on the patient as a total replacement. It can take six months or more to heal completely from the surgery. Resurfacing requires a larger incision than total hip replacement.
A crucial issue in joint replacement is longevity. A substitute hip is good for about 20 years, and it is difficult to remove and replace one that’s shot. Hip resurfacing, unlike hip replacement, preserves enough bone to permit a total replacement if it is necessary later.
Surgeons estimate that 10 to 15 percent of people with bad hips can consider hip resurfacing instead of replacement. For example, resurfacing is not recommended for patients with osteoporosis, a disease that makes bones porous and vulnerable to fractures.
There is a question in resurfacing about electrically charged metal atoms that enter the body as the cup rubs against the cap in the hip joint. Some studies have raised fears that these atoms might cause disease. As a precaution, the Food and Drug Administration has said the materials used in resurfacing should not be implanted in women who plan to have children, and in patients whose kidneys have been weakened by diseases such as diabetes.
Is there an age cut-off for hip resurfacing? Every decision about surgery is one that should be made by each individual with the advice of a physician. Some who have studied hip resurfacing contend that there still isn’t enough known about the safety of the procedure. These healthcare experts advise getting a replacement hip joint if you are older than 65.
Hip resurfacing was developed in the 1960s, but there were unresolved problems for many years. The procedure has been popular in Europe. Thousands have had hips resurfaced in the last 10 years.
However, the first resurfacing system for use in the United States wasn’t approved by the FDA until 2006. Last year, a second system earned FDA approval. More than 400 surgeons in the U.S. are trained to handle the operation.
About 300,000 people in this country have their hips replaced annually. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons says joint replacement surgery is successful in more than 9 out of 10 people.
If you have a question, please write to firstname.lastname@example.org.
No Straight From Starrucca This Week
No Veterans' Corner This Week
Stoneflies: tasty trout tidbits
“Kersplash”! The brightly speckled brown trout hit the tip of my leader with a startling impact. It was a fortunate choice that I had made when I tied on an artificial wet fly that imitated an Appalachian salmonfly larva. Not a true fly, this insect is a stonefly, order Plecoptera.
An adult stonefly.
Commonly seen in early spring near small streams and rivers, adult stoneflies are frequently misidentified as moths, wasps or regular flies. Recent research has identified 134 species of stoneflies in Pennsylvania. While seldom noticed, except by fishermen, these adults rarely stray far from their larval homes in the nearby waters. The aquatic larvae are most often identified by the presence of two tail-like filaments that protrude from the rear of their abdomen. Nearly all stonefly larvae inhabit some form of flowing water, with the most diversity found in cool, oxygen rich waters. They are not found in lakes or slow spring creeks. Often the inhabited streams are heavily shaded and flow through a substrate of large boulders, cobblestone, pebbles and accumulations of fallen limbs and leaves. Stonefly larvae are often found crawling about on the underside of flat stones located in the areas of fast current. In these varying habitats the less active stonefly larvae feed on decaying plant matter (called detritus), while the other, more active predatory ones lay in wait to ambush smaller aquatic organisms. While the detritus eaters shred their food and consume small bits at a time, the predators usually gulp their prey down whole. Such prey depends on the time of year and availability, but it is often such pests as midges and black flies.
A stonefly in its nymph stage.
Depending on the particular species, stonefly larvae (often referred to as nymphs or naiads) breathe by absorbing dissolved oxygen from the water through some type of gill. These gills, located on the underside near the legs, can vary from simple filaments to elaborate branched, feather-like structures. Those species living in warmer waters have the more complex, finely divided gill structures. Some stonefly species perform “pushup-like” maneuvers to create more water flow over their gills to compensate for slow current or warm water, which has low dissolved oxygen content.
The stoneflies of North America have only one generation per year. In many cases it takes two years for them to complete a life cycle. While most adults emerge from early spring to early summer, some species emerge later in the summer, in the fall or winter. The female stonefly lays large numbers of eggs in a mass when she briefly alights on the water surface, tempting that lurking, hungry trout. The eggs quickly separate and drop to the stream bottom, eventually attaching to some substrate as they bounce along. Although these eggs usually will hatch in 3 to 4 weeks, unfavorable conditions can force them into a resting condition known as diapause. This diapause can delay development up to 6 months or until favorable conditions reappear. As the larvae grow, they shed their skin (exoskeleton) and a new, larger version emerges. Once the larvae approach adulthood, they cease feeding and drift to a location favorable for emergence from the water. They must crawl out of water to become adults. Suitable locations include protruding rocks, fallen trees, bridge pillars, floating logs and emerging plants. Upon attachment to such structures, the newly emerged larva’s skin splits and out crawls a newly formed adult. This final molt usually lasts about 10 minutes and occurs primarily after dark so as to avoid predation by birds and other insects. The newly formed stonefly adult crawls to a hidden position on nearby vegetation where its exoskeleton dries and hardens. Living for only a few weeks, the adults are quite secretive, only flying about from dusk to dawn, feeding on soft vegetative structures like buds, flowers and fruit. Some species eat lichens and algae, which occur on rocks near their stream.
As in many insect species, the stoneflies have interesting mating rituals. The reclusive males and females locate each other by tapping their abdomens to create a unique drumming sound. This auditory communication continues as they head in each other’s direction. While we can hear the similar sounds of grasshoppers and crickets, that of the stoneflies are inaudible to us.
Interestingly, there are some species of stoneflies that are active in the winter and go into diapause in the warmer weather, just the opposite of most insects, which are all “cold-blooded.”
Since stonefly populations in any given stream are fairly low, there are no mass emergences of them, as is common with many other aquatic insects. The secretive adults don’t invade our homes, eat our crops or damage our things. Most people are not even aware of their existence. Actually these little known insects are quite beneficial to us. They aid in the breakdown of organic matter in streams, consume some very annoying pests, and serve as an important food source for other aquatic life, including fish, salamanders and ducks. Perhaps even more significant is their role in providing environmental data relating to the water quality of streams. Of all the aquatic insects, stoneflies are among the most sensitive to pollution. Therefore, in conjunction with other data, they are effective tools in the determination of a waterway’s environmental health.
For some exciting fly-fishing adventure, check your favorite stream for stoneflies. Then try to imitate their size, shape and color with an artificial wetfly. It sometimes yields results when the trout turn up their “noses” at mayflies.
For anyone interested in learning more about stoneflies or other aquatic insects I will be leading a nature walk, focusing on aquatic insects, at the Florence Shelly Wetlands on Sunday, April 6. The walk will begin at the Stack Road parking lot at 2:00 p.m. Questions, comments and suggestions regarding this article or any other insect related matters are welcome. Please email them to email@example.com.
No Food For Thought This Week
From the Editors of E/The Environmental Magazine
Dear EarthTalk: What is the status of sharks around the world? I see occasional stories about sharks attacking humans, but on balance aren’t we a lot more brutal to them then they are to us?
Pam Hitschler, Radnor, PA
It’s true that humans do a lot more damage to shark populations than vice versa. Marine biologists report that sharks are in rapid decline around the world. In the North Atlantic Ocean, shark populations have declined more than 50 percent over the past 20 years alone, with some species now nearing extinction.
Experts see the primary cause as over-fishing, which depletes sharks as well as their prey. Sharks are especially vulnerable to illegal “longlines” (fishing nets strung across dozens if not hundreds of miles of ocean), where they get inadvertently snared along with the tuna and swordfish fishermen intend to catch.
Rising demand for shark fin soup is also contributing to the demise of sharks. According to a report by Wildaid, shark fins are among the most expensive seafood products in the world, selling for some $700 per kilogram on the Hong Kong market. With prices like that, many longline fishermen, who are already operating illegally, are happy to augment their incomes by “finning” a few sharks along the way. (Finning is the practice of removing a fin from a shark and discarding the rest of the carcass at sea.)
Often, threatened wildlife species manage to maintain their numbers in spite of excessive human predation. But sharks face an especially uphill battle, says renowned shark expert Ransom Myers, because they “take a long time to mature and have relatively few babies.”
So what is being done to save sharks? In the U.S., the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation Act is the primary law that oversees the conservation of U.S. fisheries and has established various management regulations for 39 species of sharks in the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. It outlaws finning if the carcass is discarded but not if the rest of carcass is kept, clearly an unfortunate loophole.
The U.S. also helped develop a United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization treaty (the International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks) whereby 87 countries agreed to develop their own plans for the conservation of sharks. However, only two countries – the U.S. and Australia – have lived up to the agreement. The U.S. plan is administered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, which has been working with regional fisheries authorities to make sure fishermen are sticking to cautiously low quotas regarding the number of sharks they are allowed to catch.
What can consumers do to save the sharks? The Monterey Bay Aquarium in Monterey, California urges consumers to avoid all shark products, not just on restaurant menus but also all souvenirs such as jaws and teeth, and shark-cartilage pills, which have been touted as cancer cures but which have been proven to be completely ineffective and are now widely considered a scam. The aquarium also encourages consumers to support with their pocketbooks conservation groups working to protect sharks and oceans, and specifically those working to set aside marine reserves that are off-limits to fishing.
Dear EarthTalk: What are some of the best online sources of environmental information?
Hip2bGreen, Seattle, WA
One of the best places to start in venturing out into eco-cyberspace is the website of a green group you already know – perhaps one for whom you have donated money or volunteered. Most groups use their websites to keep their supporters updated on the issues they cover, and provide links to many other green websites. Beyond such groups, several independent “third-party” sources also provide useful information on a wide range of environmental topics, from consumer tips to news to action alerts.
One leading green website is Grist (grist.org), which reports environmental news in a witty and engaging manner, billing itself as “gloom and doom with a sense of humor.” Checking out Grist’s daily rundown of environmental news is de rigueur among eco-activists, and many regular folks keep tabs on it, too. Other excellent news sources include Environmental News Network (enn.com), and Environmental News Service (ens-newswire.com). And one new kid on the block is The Daily Green (thedailygreen.com), which bills itself as the “consumer’s guide to the green revolution.” Owned by major magazine publisher Hearst, The Daily Green offers news, green tips and advice, and a plethora of green home, food and lifestyle topics.
The Green Guide (thegreenguide.com), run by National Geographic, is probably the best online source for green consumer information, specializing in green living tips, product reviews and environmental health news. Looking for guidance on saving water around the house, choosing among non-toxic paints or packing greener lunches for your school-age kids? The Green Guide would be a good place to start.
If you’re interested in more comprehensive looks at green issues and topics, emagazine.com posts much of the content of its flagship E – The Environmental Magazine, along with weekly news and commentary. Visitors can also access 18 years’ worth of in-depth articles – the magazine has been turning out bi-monthly print issues since 1990 – on just about every green topic imaginable.
Those interested in social networking and the environment should look to Care2 (care2.com), the world’s largest online environmental community. The site offers its eight million members free e-mail accounts and provides lots of background information on just about every environmental issue.
A handful of green ‘blogs are starting to get a lot of media attention and web traffic. The king of them all is Treehugger (treehugger.com), which offers several posts each day from a stable of thinkers committed to environmental issues. Its coverage is not comprehensive, but Treehugger excels at tapping into trends in environmental thinking and culture. Another source of environmental tips and culture online is IdealBite (idealbite.com), a blog-style site offering up “bite-sized ideas for light green living.”
And then there are the “click-to-donate” websites, where visitors can read up on a variety of conservation campaigns and then contribute money via credit card. Ecology Fund (ecologyfund.com), the Rainforest Site (the rainforestsite.com) and Red Jellyfish (redjellyfish.com) are some of the leaders in this category.
So cue up that browser and start clicking. You’ll be amazed at what you can learn, let alone accomplish!
GOT AN ENVIRONMENTAL QUESTION? Send it to: EarthTalk, c/o E/The Environmental Magazine, P.O. Box 5098, Westport, CT 06881; submit it at: www.emagazine.com/earthtalk/thisweek/, or e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Read past columns at: www.emagazine.com/earthtalk/archives.php.
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