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Issue Home September 16, 2009 Site Home

100 Years Ago
From the Desk of the D.A.
The Healthy Geezer
Library Chitchat
Veterans’ Corner
What’s Bugging You?
Dear Dolly
Earth Talk
Barnes-Kasson Corner

100 Years Ago

ARARAT SUMMIT: L. O. Baldwin is undergoing treatment for cancer of the neck which is being removed by the use of plasters. Dr. A. L. Craft, of Herrick, is the attending physician. Mr. Baldwin’s condition at this writing seems very promising for a successful cure.

FRANKLIN: The Webster reunion will be held September 18, at the Old Homestead where the first Webster lived that settled in this vicinity. The place is now occupied by J. C. B. H. Webster.

FLYNN: The party who took five turkeys out of a neighbor’s flock had better return them and save trouble.

HALLSTEAD: Frank Tingley, James Kirby, B. L. Maynard, Charles Austin and Patrick Berry attended a meeting of [railroad] engineers in Buffalo.

BROOKLYN: Miss Hattie D. Lee is on an extended visit to Washington, D. C. as a guest of her brother, Willis Lee, who has a fine position in the government department of surveying the mineral lands of the west.

MONTROSE: While driving one of the Keough ice wagons, Jay Hawley met with a most distressing accident. While delivering ice at the Misses O’Neill, on South Main street, the big wagon ran over a stump or a block of wood, which threw him off the wagon and to the ground and at same time he became entangled in the lines, which drew him under the wheels, breaking his leg below the knee in two places and crushing the foot. He was taken into the O’Neill home and Dr. Birchard summoned, who reduced the fracture.

LENOX: J. H. Langley is in the Simon H. Barnes Memorial Hospital, in Susquehanna, after a thrilling experience. He was working in a saw mill at New Milford, planning some boards. His right hand came in contact with the large circular saw badly lacerating it. Despite medical aid the wound bled profusely and fearing that the man would bleed to death he was taken to the hospital. The trip of 9 miles was made in record-breaking time. It was necessary to amputate the thumb and index finger of the right hand. ALSO Emulous Pickering died suddenly at his home near Glenwood on Sept. 7. Deceased was a well known resident, having been born in that vicinity 78 years ago and in his younger days was a noted raftsman, being considered one of the hardiest and strongest men of that time. He was also a veteran of the Civil War [Co. A & C, 161st Regiment] and held an excellent war record. He is survived by three daughters, Mrs. Charles Cook, Mrs. Arthur Cook and Mrs. Isaac Ferguson and two brothers Ephriam and Gaylord Pickering.

NEW MILFORD: A. C. Risley has purchased the hardware stock of Chas. O’Byrne here. Mr. O’Byrne will continue in the tinware and plumbing business at the same place.

HALLSTEAD: The Hallstead Fire company received a check for $25 from the citizens of Foster [Hopbottom] for their valuable assistance in fighting a fire in that place a short

time ago.

DUNDAFF: Messrs. Harry Fike, Niles Race, Harold Stevens and Mesdames Fay Fike, Ethel Race and June Coleman are attending school at Carbondale. What’s the matter with a graded school here? The location is the best.

JACKSON: D. D. Dunn and son have put a new gasoline engine in their wagon shop. Besides having a large engine in their woodshop, they will now have a smaller one to run the machinery in the blacksmith shop.

PARKVALE, DIMOCK TWP.: There was quite a large drove of cows that passed through Parkvale on their way to Montrose, last week.

CHOCONUT: They are building a much needed bridge at the foot of the hill by the Chalker school house. The Chalker school opened last week, with Miss Susie Murphy as teacher.

LITTLE MEADOWS: Prof. E. Beardslee, brother of Miss Verna I. Beardslee, of Montrose, has accepted the principalship of the Montgomery Academy at Montgomery, N.Y. Mr. Beardslee for the past year was principal of the Great Bend schools.

BIRCHARDVILLE: An acetylene gas lighting plant has just been installed in Clark D. Dayton’s residence at Birchardville by J. J. Watrous, of Montrose, the representative for this section. This method of lighting is gaining in favor in town and rural localities and is being quite generally adopted by progressive people.

CLIFFORD: Glen Bennett started on Tuesday for Massachusetts to take up his school duties.

HOPBOTTOM: It is said that Mrs. E. M. Tiffany has donated the lot for the new bank building in this borough.

SUSQUEHANNA: William Clark, aged 30, committed suicide by taking carbolic acid at the home of Charles Finkel. Clark put into execution his threats of several occasions that he would end his life if Mrs. Finkel, with whom he had become enamored, did not elope with him. This she had steadfastly refused to do. Clark was a one-legged man and came to Susquehanna from Afton, N.Y. about 1 1/2 years ago. He boarded at the Finkel home, supporting himself by doing odd jobs about town. Prior to his death he told his landlady that he murdered a girl at Afton some time ago and he had thrown her body into Afton Lake saying, “If anything happens to me during the next few days you can tell the police that I killed Bertha and threw her body into the lake. Everybody at Afton will know what I mean.” Upon checking his story most Afton residents appeared to be dense on the subject and knew nothing about the disappearance of a girl named Bertha.

FOREST CITY: The Forest House has received a new electric advertising sign which will, when swung to its moorings, attract the attention of all visitors to the town. It is 6 x 8 feet and will contain 128 lights.

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From the Desk of the D.A.
By District Attorney Jason J. Legg

On September 13, 1999, I was sworn in as a Susquehanna County Assistant District Attorney. At that time, I had never actually set foot in a courtroom as a litigant - I had been there plenty of times as a law clerk to hear oral arguments on a case that I had been assigned, or to simply take a chance to watch experienced attorneys conduct hearings, arguments or trials. As with most things, there is a big difference between watching and doing - and there is really only so much you can learn from watching. I knew that the prosecutor position would provide me with plenty of opportunities to be in court - to learn and grow as an attorney. I just did not know how fast it would come.

On September 24, 1999, a scant 11 days after being sworn in, I prosecuted my first criminal trial, Commonwealth v. Miles, a sexual assault case that was scheduled for a judge trial. The case itself involved a teenaged juvenile female victim. The defense attorney (and the defendant) had requested a judge trial as there was a concern over proceeding in front of a jury with a juvenile female victim. Now, a judge trial is a nice way to get started as you only have to worry about the judge - not 14 jurors.

Looking back, I was extremely fortunate with that assignment, or, perhaps I should thank my boss for getting me started with a strong case. The victim in the case was a very strong witness - an essential element of any sexual assault case. The juvenile victim contended that she had gone to a friend’s house for a sleep over and woke up to discover the friend’s father (the defendant) groping her about her intimate body parts. The case boiled down to a he said/she said - so the victim needed to be a strong witness.

I prepped my witness the day before the trial, met with the investigating trooper, and prepared all of my questions in advance. I left no stone unturned - or so I thought. I was confident and ready for the courtroom battle. The morning arrived, the case was called, and I was already to start my opening statement - when the first curve was thrown. The judge indicated that there was no need for an opening as it was a judge trial - just get right into testimony. I was sent scrambling from moment one.

I called the victim and she did a great job testifying. We carefully went through my prepared questions - including asking the witness to identify the defendant and getting her to tell her story. She did very well on cross-examination - and the case seemed solid. The witness left the stand - and I confidently stated that the Commonwealth rested its case.

The defense attorney immediately moved to have the case dismissed as I had not established the jurisdiction for the offense, i.e., where the offense occurred. The victim testified that the sexual assault occurred in the defendant’s home, but I never asked her where the defendant lived. I could feel my heart start beating faster, my blood pressure spike, and my face flush. This was trial advocacy 101 stuff - how could I have forgotten it! I knew that the victim was sitting in the courtroom listening - and not really understanding what was happening. Had I taken away her chance for justice by my mistake?

And I learned my first lesson about trials - the need to think on your feet quickly. I had only seconds to respond - and I grabbed onto what I knew had been presented. The victim testified that she and the defendant’s daughter went to a particular school district in Susquehanna County. I argued that this provided sufficient evidence to infer that the defendant’s residence was within that school district, and, as such, that the offense occurred in Susquehanna County. I never should have had to make the argument in the first place - and I doubt that I even breathed until the judge made his ruling. The judge denied the defense motion and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to reasonably infer that the crime had occurred in Susquehanna County.

Ultimately, the defendant was convicted on all counts and sentenced to a period of incarceration. What I remember the most about my first trial experience, however, is how I almost screwed it up. It goes without saying, I have never made that mistake again.

Please submit any questions, concerns, or comments to Susquehanna County District Attorney’s Office, P.O. Box 218, Montrose, Pennsylvania 18801 or at our website or discuss this and all articles at

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The Healthy Geezer
By Fred Cicetti

Q. Are probiotics safe?

There is debate over the precise definition of probiotics. The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization and the World Health Organization call probiotics “live microorganisms, which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host.”

Microorganisms - or microbes - are living organisms that can be seen only under a microscope. Microbes are everywhere; the human body contains billions of them.

Some microbes cause disease. Others are essential for health. Most microbes belong to one of four major groups: bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa.

Less than one percent of bacteria cause diseases in humans. Harmless bacteria live in human intestines, where they help to digest food.

Viruses, which consist of one or more molecules, contain the virus’s genes surrounded by a protein coat. Most viruses cause disease.

There are millions of types of fungi, which are primitive vegetables. Some live in the human body, usually without causing illness.

Protozoa are single-cell animals. In humans, protozoa usually cause disease.

Probiotics is a term that refers to foods or supplements that contain beneficial bacteria that can help with digestion and defend against dangerous bacteria. The bacteria in probiotics are similar to those normally found in your body.

Probiotics are in foods such as yogurt and other dairy products, miso (soybean paste), tempeh (soybean cake), and some juices and soy drinks.

There are probiotics that have been used for centuries. These include fermented foods and cultured milk products. Interest in probiotics in general has been growing. In the USA, alone, spending on probiotic supplements nearly tripled from 1994 to 2003.

Are probiotics safe?

Some live microbes have a long history of safe use as probiotics. However, the safety of probiotics has not been thoroughly studied scientifically. More information is needed on the safety of use in older people, young children, and people with compromised immune systems. Seniors should consult their physicians before beginning any new therapy.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products. So buyer beware.

There is increasing scientific interest in probiotics. Some researchers believe probiotics may improve general health.

There is evidence that probiotics may help treat diarrhea, vaginal yeast infections, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammation following colon surgery. There is also data to support the benefits of probiotics in reducing bladder-cancer recurrence, shortening the duration of intestinal infections and preventing eczema.

Probiotics are helpful in combating C. difficile (a.k.a. C. diff), a common and potentially fatal infection in hospitals.

C. diff bacteria are omnipresent, but they don’t pose a threat unless they multiply abnormally in the intestines. This can happen when you take antibiotics.

Antibiotics often destroy beneficial bacteria while trying to kill off the ones that are making you sick. If you don’t have enough good bacteria in your body, C. diff can proliferate.

Saccharomyces boulardii, a probiotic, is helpful in treating C. diff infections. Saccharomyces boulardii is a natural yeast, a fungus.

If you would like to ask a question, please write

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Library Chitchat
By Flo Whittaker

Join us at the Library for a trip back in time to rural Nebraska in the late 19th Century. We do not have a time machine, but we do have Willa Cather’s 1918 classic novel “My Antonia.” This is the 2009 selection for Susquehanna County Reads, a joint program sponsored by the Library and the Susquehanna County Literacy Program.

See the world as it existed in that time period through the eyes of Jim Burden, a young man going to live with his grandparents in Black Hawk, Nebraska, and Antonia Shimerdas, an immigrant from Bohemia. Learn about the immigrant experience and pioneer values.

Registration for Susquehanna County Reads begins on Monday, September 14, at all four library locations and at the Pratt Memorial Library in New Milford. The cost for adults is $3 and includes a copy of the book. Children can register for free, but no book is included.

Susquehanna County Reads has planned a number of activities throughout the month of October, including a women’s history walk, a day honoring our rural heritage at Salt Springs Park, a book panel discussion and a “barn bash.” There will be a showing of the 1995 TV movie “My Antonia,” starring Jason Robards and Eva Marie Saint, at St. Paul’s Church. Check out all the details at the Library’s website at

These programs will provide a snapshot into a different time and different way of living. As always, Susquehanna County Library aims to make the Library your resource for lifetime learning.

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Veterans’ Corner

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What’s Bugging You?
By Stuart W. Slocum

American Dagger Moth: Wild And Wooly

As autumn approaches, the types and forms of the insects encountered begin to change. Many different caterpillars are on the prowl, looking for a final meal before entering their pupal stage through which they will endure the cold winter months. One such bizarre looking creature is the American dagger moth, Acronicta americana. This large caterpillar’s pale green skin is densely covered with fine, white or pale yellow setae (hairs). The older caterpillars are more obviously yellow in coloration. The caterpillar has two pairs of long black tufts extending out from the middle of its back and a thicker, black, single dorsal tuft on its rear. The head is smooth and shiny black. When disturbed, the caterpillar will curl up into a ball. The mature caterpillar reaches a length of about one and one half inches.

American dagger moth caterpillar.

Often found near moist woodland areas in the Northeast, these caterpillars primarily feed on maple and box elder. They are also known to feed on the foliage of alder, American hornbeam, apple, ash, basswood, birch, chestnut, hazel, hickory, horse chestnut, oak, poplar, sycamore, walnut and willow trees. Feeding at night, the young caterpillars are avid grazers, chewing irregular shaped holes in the leaves from the underside. They characteristically rest with their heads curled to one side beneath a leaf. Before seeking a daytime hiding place, the caterpillars cut off the partially consumed leaf at its petiole (stem). This action protects the caterpillar from predatory birds which often use partially-eaten leaves as a guide to locate their prey.

In their northern range, the American daggers have only one generation per year, with the caterpillars active from July to October. Prior to pupation, the mature caterpillars excavate a shallow depression in wood or bark. The sawdust from these chewings are mixed with silk, oral secretions and leaf matter to form a hardened dome over the pupating caterpillar. These unusual cocoons are often found on wood siding or in firewood.

As with other moth and butterfly caterpillars, the American dagger moth is very susceptible to parasite attacks. Female Braconid wasps are particularly aggressive, depositing their eggs in the caterpillars. The wasp larvae consume the caterpillars from the inside out and then pupate within the caterpillar corpse. Upon maturing, the emerging wasps chew their way out of the caterpillar body, leaving many noticeable holes.

American dagger moth adult.

Dagger moths belong to the Noctuid or Owlet moth family. They are so named because of their nocturnal habits and eyes that brightly reflect the smallest amount of light. They are also noteworthy for the presence of small eardrum-like structures (tympani) located beneath their hind wings. These structures enable them to detect bat sonar and take early evasive action to avoid becoming the evening’s main course. As with most noctuid moths, the adult American dagger moth is large-bodied, but a plain dull grayish-brown color. The dagger portion of its name refers to the dark dagger-shaped line that slashes across each of its front wings. With a wingspan of about 2 inches, it is the largest of the 34 dagger moth species found in Eastern North America.

While its feeding habits normally appear to have minimal impact on the environment, there are numerous, unsubstantiated reports of some individuals having allergic reactions after having direct contact with this caterpillar. Like the Hickory tussock moth of which I have previously written, this caterpillar is suspected of having urticating hairs. These hairs are associated with certain dermal glands that can cause stinging, itching, burning or blistering of the skin in susceptible people. If you are not sure whether or not you are one of those people, it probably is wise to enjoy the beauty of these fuzzy little creatures without touching them. Questions, comments and suggestions regarding this article, identifications or any other insect-related matters are welcome. Please email them to

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Dear Dolly,

Dear Dolly,

My niece and nephew have been raised without table manners. Every holiday meal we share I look for improvement, only to be appalled yet again at their ignorance of basic table etiquette. They are 18 and 21 and I don't want to embarrass them in front of everyone by correcting them at the table. Their parents have the same bad habits. What should I do? -RayLynn

Dear RayLynn,

Bad table manners can publicly brand a person as uneducated and unmotivated. Without them saying a word, their IQ appears to drop 50 points and they are perceived as lacking in all areas. Bad table manners have ended countless business deals and put a halt to many a romantic attraction. You are right to be concerned.

The family meal has traditionally been the place where manners are learned. Children learn what they live so if the parents don't practice good manners, the kids won't know any better.

This is where the efforts of a caring relative can make a huge difference. Ask your niece or nephew to share a meal with you once a month. Make it a special time for just the two of you. You will have the privacy to talk about the basic rules of table manners and to set a good example. Keep it simple by focusing on a couple of manners each time and make the time enjoyable by being a good listener.

Dear Dolly,

It drives me nuts when I am checking out at a store and the clerk is talking on a cell phone. I've said, "I'll wait until your finished with your call," but that just makes the clerk grumpy, the folks behind me impatient, and I get embarrassed. -Mark

Dear Mark,

It is a lack of common courtesy for a clerk, waiting on a customer, to be talking on a phone. Calling it a huge customer service mistake, is an understatement. I admire your courage for the suggestion that you are willing to wait for the call to be terminated. It will work if enough customers do just that, but for a more permanent solution you will need to get the attention of the store's owner or manager.

There needs to be a formal company policy regarding phone use at work. Most larger companies have a policy on the books about phone use during working hours. With the explosion of cell phones, policies need to be updated so that they reflect proper cell phone etiquette in relation to good customer service.

Writing a short and to the point letter to the store, is the best way to let management know there is a problem. Before you leave the store, write down the mailing address and the owner/manager's name. Make a copy of your receipt and send it along to verify the date and time you were at the store. You may think that one letter won't make much difference, but when a store receives one hand written letter it knows that chances are, there are 50 people who have had the same experience and haven't taken time to write.

All Transcript readers are welcome to submit their questions to Dear Dolly at

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From the Editors of E/The Environmental Magazine

Dear EarthTalk: Is it true that military sonar exercises actually kill marine wildlife?

Unfortunately for many whales, dolphins and other marine life, the use of underwater sonar (short for sound navigation and ranging) can lead to injury and even death. Sonar systems - first developed by the U.S. Navy to detect enemy submarines - generate slow-rolling sound waves topping out at around 235 decibels; the world’s loudest rock bands top out at only 130. These sound waves can travel for hundreds of miles under water, and can retain an intensity of 140 decibels as far as 300 miles from their source.

These rolling walls of noise are no doubt too much for some marine wildlife. While little is known about any direct physiological effects of sonar waves on marine species, evidence shows that whales will swim hundreds of miles, rapidly change their depth (sometime leading to bleeding from the eyes and ears), and even beach themselves to get away from the sounds of sonar.

In January 2005, 34 whales of three different species became stranded and died along North Carolina’s Outer Banks during nearby offshore Navy sonar training. Other sad examples around the coast of the U.S. and elsewhere abound, notably in recent years with more sonar testing going on than ever before. According to the nonprofit Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), which has campaigned vigorously to ban use of the technology in waters rich in marine wildlife, recent cases of whale strandings likely represent a small fraction of sonar’s toll, given that severely injured animals rarely make it to shore.

In 2003, NRDC spearheaded a successful lawsuit against the Navy to restrict the use of low-frequency sonar off the coast of California. Two years later a coalition of green groups led by NRDC and including the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW), the League for Coastal Protection, Cetacean Society International, and Ocean Futures Society upped the ante, asking the federal courts to also restrict testing of more intense, harmful and far ranging mid-frequency types of sonar off Southern California’s coastline.

In filing their brief, the groups cited Navy documents which estimated that such testing would kill some 170,000 marine mammals and cause permanent injury to more than 500 whales, not to mention temporary deafness for at least 8,000 others. Coalition lawyers argued that the Navy’s testing was in violation of the National Environmental Policy Act, the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered Species Act.

Two lower courts upheld NRDC’s claims, but the Supreme Court ruled that the Navy should be allowed to continue the use of some mid-frequency sonar testing for the sake of national security. “The decision places marine mammals at greater risk of serious and needless harm,” says NRDC’s Joel Reynolds.

Environmental groups are still fighting the battle against the sonar, lobbying the government to curtail testing, at least during peacetime, or to at least ramp up testing gradually to give marine wildlife a better chance to flee affected areas. “The U.S. Navy could use a number of proven methods to avoid harming whales when testing mid-frequency sonar,” reports IFAW’s Fred O'Regan. “Protecting whales and preserving national security are not mutually exclusive.”


Dear EarthTalk: How does the microwave compare in energy use, say, to using a gas or electric stove burner to heat water for a cup of tea?

The short answer is that it depends upon several variables, including the price of electricity versus gas, and the relative efficiency of the appliances involved. Typically, though, a microwave would be slightly more efficient at heating water than the flame on a gas stove, and should use up a little less energy. The reason: The microwave’s heat waves are focused on the liquid (or food) inside, not on heating the air or container around it, meaning that most if not all of the energy generated is used to make your water ready.

Given this logic, it is hard to believe that a burner element on an electric stovetop would be any better, but an analysis by Home Energy Magazine found otherwise. The magazine’s researchers discovered that an electric burner uses about 25 percent less electricity than a microwave in boiling a cup of water.

That said, the difference in energy saved by using one method over another is negligible: Choosing the most efficient process might save a heavy tea drinker a dollar or so a year. “You’d save more energy over the year by replacing one light bulb with a CFL [compact fluorescent lightbulb] or turning off the air conditioner for an hour - not an hour a day, one hour at some point over the whole year,” says consumer advocate Michael Bluejay.

Although a microwave may not save much energy or money over a stove burner when heating water, it can be much more energy-efficient than a traditional full-size oven when it comes to cooking food. For starters, because their heat waves are concentrated on the food, microwaves cook and heat much faster than traditional ovens. According to the federal government’s Energy Star program, which rates appliances based on their energy-efficiency, cooking or re-heating small portions of food in the microwave can save as much as 80 percent of the energy used to cook or warm them up in the oven.

The website reports that there are other things you can do to optimize your energy efficiency around the kitchen when cooking. For starters, make sure to keep the inside surfaces of your microwave oven clean so as to maximize the amount of energy reflected toward your food. On a gas stovetop, make sure the flame is fully below the cookware; likewise, on an electric stovetop, make sure the pan or kettle completely covers the heating element to minimize wasted heat. Also, use the appropriate size pan for the job at hand, as smaller pans are cheaper and more energy-efficient to heat up.

Despite these tips for cooking greener, Bluejay reiterates that most of us will hardly put a dent in our overall energy use just by choosing one appliance over another. According to his analysis, for someone who bakes three hours a week the cheapest cooking method saves only an estimated $2.06/month compared to the most expensive method.

“Focusing on cooking methods is not the way to save electricity [at home],” says Bluejay. “You should look at heating, cooling, lighting and laundry instead.”

CONTACTS: Home Energy Magazine,; Treehugger,; Michael Bluejay,

Send Your Environmental Questions To: EarthTalk, P.O. Box 5098, Westport, CT 06881; Read past columns at:

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Barnes-Kasson Corner
By Cara Sepcoskiw

National Ovarian Cancer Week September 14 - 20

Barnes-Kasson Hospital is observing National Ovarian Cancer Week September 14 - 20.

Cancer starts in the cells, the basic building blocks of life. The cells make up tissue, which make up organs and many parts of the body. Normally, cells grow and die as the body needs them. Sometimes, this process goes wrong. Cells form when the body does not need them, and old cells do not die when they should. These extra cells can form a mass of tissue called a tumor. It can be either cancerous or benign. In ovarian cancer, the overgrowth of cells is found in the ovaries and is cancerous. Over time the cancer can spread and become very deadly. There are four stages to ovarian cancer. In the first stage, the cancer is confined to either one or both of the ovaries. By stage four the cancer has spread beyond the ovaries and to other organs.

For many years, ovarian cancer was known as the “silent killer” because its symptoms often mimic other common conditions. This made it harder to diagnose and usually was not discovered until it had spread to other parts of the body. Today however, most cases of ovarian cancer are detected early, and according to the National Cancer society survival rate has increased 93%. This is because testing for ovarian cancer is now more common, and doctors now have a clearer view of what the risk factors are. This leads to earlier detection, which increases survival rate massively.

The exact cause of ovarian cancer remains completely unknown. But significant risk factors have been identified. Age, family history, infertility, childbearing status and obesity are all factors. Two other less obvious factors are the BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutated genes. These are the genes often found in cases of breast cancer. Women with the BRCA1 mutation have a 35 to 70 percent higher risk of ovarian cancer than do women without this mutation, and for women with a BRCA2 mutation, the risk is 10 to 30 percent higher.

If one or more risk factors are present in a patient, their doctor may recommend that they undergo a test or screening. At this point In time, there are no foolproof ways to test for this type of cancer. The current options for testing are ultrasound, a pelvic exam, and a CA125 blood test. In the first two tests, the size, shape and configuration of the ovaries are directly examined. With a blood test, levels of a protein called CA125 are examined. Many women with ovarian cancer have high elevated levels of this protein, but high levels can also indicate many other noncancerous conditions. Because of the lack of specificity, this test is not used routinely.

If someone is diagnosed with ovarian cancer, they’re treatment will usually consist of a combination of surgery and chemotherapy. Generally, the operation includes removing both ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the uterus as well as nearby lymph nodes where ovarian cancer often spreads. After surgery, many females are treated with chemotherapy, which is a system of drugs designed to kill cancer cells. Side effects including abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting may leave women unable to complete a full course of treatment. But even an incomplete course of this treatment may help women live longer.

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