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Issue Home July 29, 2009 Site Home

100 Years Ago
From the Desk of the D.A.
The Healthy Geezer
Library Chitchat
Veterans’ Corner
What’s Bugging You?
Dear Dolly
Earth Talk
Barnes-Kasson Corner

100 Years Ago

EAST RUSH: E. A. Jenner has purchased an automobile and took his first tour without a chauffeur. It was delightful, this flying through the air at the rate of 20 miles an hour, and even the poor roads in Jessup did not dampen Mr. Jenner’s delight in motoring, but all of a sudden it stopped just at the foot of the hill by Very’s. It must be the simplest thing in the world for a professional to discover what was wrong, but he would do nothing but shrug his shoulders and why, yes, he had taken out the valves and tested the coil, any amateur could do so much; yet the motor would not start. Mr. Very had a rope and an obliging disposition, and with his horse towed the refractory machine to the top of the hill. If Mr. Jenner’s remarks matched his expression it would be wrong to record them here. When they reached J. H. McKeeby’s, Mr. Jenner thought he would be safe in sending the horse back, as it would surely go on the level, but he was finally obliged to leave it beside the road and trudge wearily home a foot. The trouble proved to be that the batteries needed replacing.

EAST KINGSLEY: Thursday, little Charles Oakley, while sitting in front of the stove, fell out of his high chair onto the stove burning his face and hands severely, although not seriously.

ELK LAKE: The many friends of Miss Sallie Stevens surprised her on her 89th birthday, by taking dinner with her and making her a postal shower. She was also presented with some very beautiful bouquets of sweet peas and many best wishes.

FRANKLIN TWP.: Banker Brothers have just sold a number of handsome thoroughbred Devon cattle to parties in South Carolina, Virginia and Litchfield, Conn., and state that they were never in receipt of more orders than the present spring and summer. They breed the best in thoroughbred stock and have a steady demand from those who wish to improve their herds.

LAWTON: William Gibbs, of Lawton, died at the home of his son, Edgar C. Gibbs, at West Auburn, July 20, 1909, aged 64 years, 8 months and 6 days. He was a good man, beloved by all who knew him. When 17 years of age he enlisted in Co. A, 8th Regiment, U.S. Infantry, serving until honorably discharged, a period of 5 years, 3 months and one day. A part of this time he spent in confinement in the dreadful Libby prison. His casket was draped with the flag of his country, which he loved so well.

MONTROSE: The Palace Roller Skating Rink is proving to be a most popular place of recreation and amusement for a constantly increasing number of people, who find the relaxation most pleasurable after a day of work or business. All the appointments at the Palace are of the best, and the deportment and decorum being noticeable features. The floor is as near perfect as it could be and the interior has been entirely repainted and decorated. A military organ furnishes music all the time and apparently never seems to tire. It has been open two evenings each week, namely Tuesday and Saturday and Thursday afternoons from 3 to 5.

FOWLER HILL: Mr. H. Hitchcock has picked 591 qts. of black caps from his little patch; also 699 qts. of strawberries and 103 qts. of goose berries, 77 qts. of currants and has red raspberries yet to pick.

HALLSTEAD: Hon. and Mrs. James T. DuBois are to leave Aug. 25 for Singapore, where Mr. DuBois was selected by President Taft to do some special work and it is not likely that he will remain abroad for more than a year.

FRIENDSVILLE: Chas. Stevens is prepared to wait on any one in need of wagon or sign painting. ALSO We are sorry to report our blacksmiths, both, are nursing sore fingers.

NORTH BRIDGEWATER: Camp Choconut crossed bats with the Montrose boys on Saturday last. Quite a delegation, as it took 16 horses nearly all in four-in-hand loads, to convey them to and from the County Seat.

BROOKLYN: What came near being a very serious accident occurred at the home of F. B. Jewett, when the hall lamp exploded and the oil became ignited. But for the courage and presence of mind of Mrs. Jewett the large house would have been burned. She heard the explosion, caught the lamp and with the burning oil running to the carpet, carried it out of the house.

LENOX: The telephone business is booming here. L. M. Titus, C. D. Bennett, Floyd Leach, Eddie Brundage, Charles and Frank Powers, Albert Phillips and C. L. Carey, have ‘phones in. Mr. Osgood and his men have the telephone line nearly completed to Eugene Brundage’s.

SOUTH NEW MILFORD: Now and then an auto goes through here for a change. ALSO The horse that was used for many years by W. B. Roe passed away last week. Death was due to old age. ALSO Three meat wagons a week and one store wagon through here keeps us well supplied.

FOREST CITY: The Forest City team played the Clippers of Carbondale, at Duffy’s field, Sunday, and was beaten. In the third inning, with the score 2-0 in favor of Forest City and Carbondale at the bat, there were three men on bases and two out when the ball was batted into foul territory outside the third-base line. There could be no doubt that the drive was foul for the ball landed at least ten feet outside the line and rolled further out. But the bold Mr. McDonough, that versatile arbiter who sprung in to prominence in the days of Mikey Walsh, could see that foul line perambulating hither and thither, twisting and turning and accommodatingly taking sudden jumps that embraced within the line of fairness the above mentioned foul ball. He called it “fair.” Three runs came in and the game, from that [point] on was all “Clippers.” McDonough is no doubt a capable umpire. He knows the game, he knows the rules and he knows the game is a farce when decisions are not given promptly and fairly. But one should hesitate in accusing him of intentional unfairness. Perchance he labored under a temporary attack of pink eye, which is somewhat “bossy” or the poise of his mind may have been disturbed by that affliction known as double vision, where each eye locates the same object in different places. But, unfortunately for the Forest City team he did not always close the same eye.

JAIL BREAK: It seems that one of the prisoners tipped the Sheriff, H. S. Conklin that preparations were under way to affect a general jail delivery [break].

TOWANDA: More tests are being made of the Durreil oil field near Towanda. Some oil had already been discovered when drilling stopped awhile ago, but now the Pittsburg Oil & Gas Co., with plenty of money back of it, has taken up the work and the citizens believe they will strike oil this time.

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From the Desk of the D.A.
By District Attorney Jason J. Legg

In a recent interview with the New York Times Magazine, Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg allowed her guard to slip and made an incredibly telling statement regarding her perception of abortion rights: “Frankly I had thought that at the time Roe was decided, there was concern about population growth and particularly growth in populations that we don't want to have too many of.” The plain implications of this statement are horrifying - that abortion be used as a eugenics tool to eliminate undesirable segments of the population. The interviewer took the statement in stride and never asked Ginsburg to clarify her position, i.e., ask her to define the populations that she perceived abortion was intended to target so as to limit that population growth of “those” people.

There are serious moral implications that arise from this statement - both from a religious and ethical standpoint. But even if one were to undertake the difficult task of setting them aside, there is only one type of person who could make such a statement, namely, a person so confident in her own superiority that she believes she can identify the “undesirables” that are in need of elimination for the “good” of the remainder of society. This statement plainly demonstrates a person with unabashed arrogance which has only been sustained by the power inherent in a lifetime appointment to the United States Supreme Court.

There is no escaping that Ginsburg is an elitist - cocksure confident in her wisdom and blinded by her intelligence. She knows what needs to be done - and she views the courts as a tool in the necessary social engineering process. She is one of the strongest proponents on the Supreme Court of using precedent from foreign jurisdictions to assist in interpreting American laws. There is no need for a judge to conduct an international judicial fishing expedition unless the judge is looking for precedent that would support a perceived policy agenda. When Ginsburg views American law as wrong, she has no qualms about shifting the entire American legal landscape based upon the musing of a foreign judge - provided that foreign judge supports her position.

Thus, as she reflected on Roe v. Wade, Ginsburg immediately disclosed her perceived policy goal (the “concern”) that motivated the decision, i.e., her perceived need to limit population growth of certain undesirable segments of the population. This statement is proof positive that Ginsburg’s judicial philosophy is aimed at policymaking - as opposed to simply applying the facts to the law in a neutral and fair manner. Ginsburg did not take the time to discuss the Constitutional foundation for the Roe decision; rather, she immediately and candidly stated that it was her perception that the Court was motivated by a policy concern to limit certain undesirable populations.

Legislatures are the governing bodies that should be concerned with policy - not judges. Judges do not make policy - they apply and interpret the law to the particular facts of a given case. When judges begin to make policy, the effect is to undercut the very constitutional framework itself. The Founders developed a system of checks and balances that provided each branch of government with a defined role. Federal courts were intended to be a check (or a watchdog) on the power of the legislature and the executive branches of government. Judges review the laws and policies implemented by the other branches, and, if the other branches acted within their limited powers, the judges then apply those laws to the facts of each individual case. When the federal judges decide that they should not only be interpreting the law, but also creating new public policy through judicial decisions, we are left with the proverbial fox guarding the henhouse.

Ginsburg’s statements reflect a rare moment of candor from a plainly activist judge. There is no getting around Ginsburg’s philosophy - and her history as a jurist likewise confirms an activist judicial approach. To put it simply, an activist judge like Ginsburg will play judicial twister in order to get to a desired policy goal - such as Ginsburg’s perception that abortion is necessary to eliminate undesirable populations, and, as such, the Court then recognized a constitutional right to address this policy goal.

While reasonable jurists can debate whether there is a privacy right in the Constitution relating to a woman’s reproductive rights, there are very few jurists who would contend that Roe was motivated by a policy goal of limiting population growth. Such a perceived “need” for population control has no bearing on whether a right exists in the Constitution itself - unless you are an activist judge like Ginsburg.

Please submit any questions, concerns, or comments to Susquehanna County District Attorney’s Office, P.O. Box 218, Montrose, Pennsylvania 18801 or at our website or discuss this and all articles at

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The Healthy Geezer
By Fred Cicetti

Q. My husband told me he has no energy to do chores around the house because he’s suffering from male menopause. He’s a very funny guy.

Your husband was obviously trying to yank your chain, but there’s some truth in his joking. Fatigue is a common symptom of male menopause, also known as andropause (andro means male).

Both andropause and male menopause are used to describe decreasing levels of the male hormone testosterone that come with aging. Most men see testosterone levels drop as they get older. Some have described andropause as puberty in reverse.

Age-related decline in testosterone levels is also called testosterone deficiency, androgen decline in the aging male (ADAM) or late onset hypogonadism (LOH).

Andropause is different from the menopause women experience. In menopause, the production of female hormone drops suddenly. In men, there’s a gradual decline in hormone levels.

When men reach about 40, testosterone levels usually begin to drop about one percent a year. The reduction is rarely noticeable in men younger than 60. By the time men reach their 80s, about half have low testosterone.

Young men often have testosterone levels exceeding 1000 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dl). The average testosterone level in 80 year-old men is 200 ng/dl.

Some men maintain normal testosterone levels into old age. And there are men with low testosterone levels who have no symptoms. The only sure way to learn if you are low on testosterone is by taking a blood test.

The following are some symptoms of low testosterone: diminished sex drive, reduced muscle bulk and strength, night sweats, infertility, fewer spontaneous erections, depression, loss of body hair, swollen breasts, palpitations, shrunken testes, height loss, fatigue, irritability, reduced self-confidence, poor concentration, memory loss, sleep problems, increased body fat and anemia.

It is normal for erections to occur less frequently in older men than in younger men. However, erectile dysfunction (ED) is usually brought on by medical or psychological causes, not simple aging. About 90 percent of ED is believed have medical origins such as drugs taken to treat high blood pressure.

Here are some recommendations to deal with andropause:

See your doctor for a check-up. Discuss symptoms, medications you are taking, treatment options and lifestyle changes.

Many older men suffer from undiagnosed depression. Depression in men can be more than feeling down. Depressed men can be irritable and withdrawn. They often work too much, drink to excess and try to get thrills from taking risks. If you think you might be depressed, get help.

Regular exercise helps physically, mentally and emotionally.

Eat a healthy diet.

Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is the primary treatment for declining levels of testosterone, but it is enveloped in controversy. It has helped some men, but TRT has risks, especially for men with prostate cancer and heart disease. And, TRT may not improve symptoms. More studies need to be done to determine the safety and efficacy of TRT.

There are claims that herbal supplements can relieve symptoms. Not one of these supplements has been proven to be safe and effective for age-related low testosterone.

If you have a question, please write to

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Library Chitchat
By Flo Whittaker

Join us to celebrate the 30th annual Blueberry Festival on the Village Green in Montrose. This two-day event will be held on Friday, August 7 and Saturday, August 8 from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. each day. The Blueberry Festival began as a fundraising event and has grown to become a community celebration.

Activities include children’s games, a massed band concert at 2 p.m. on Saturday, a huge used book sale, many items featuring blueberries, baked goods, the raffle of a gorgeous handmade quilt, a white elephant sale Saturday only, and much more. The Festival’s famed pancake breakfast is served from 8 a.m. to 10:30 a.m. and lunch will be served from 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. both days.

The Blueberry Festival is the signature summer activity of the Susquehanna County Historical Society and Free Library Association. Monies raised go to support the historical society, main library and its three branches, the outreach services department, the county museum, and a genealogy research center.

Thirty years is a long time to continue such an event. It requires a great deal of planning and many hours of work by hundreds volunteers as well as the support of local business. We appreciate their efforts and value their dedication, especially this year as proposed budget cuts loom.

Mark your calendar. Reserve the dates. Come early for the best selections from the used book tables.

Meet old friends and make new friends. Help support the Susquehanna Country Historical Society and Free Library Association.

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Veterans’ Corner

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What’s Bugging You?
By Stuart W. Slocum

Robber Flies: Hawks Of The Insect World

Among the many insects with mixed credentials are the fierce looking predators known as robber flies. With nearly 1000 North American species, this group of true flies comes in many sizes and shapes, some resembling bumblebees or hornets. Generally they are slender and hairy, with humped backs and large compound eyes. Most are gray, brown or black. They possess sharp tapered beaks and “bearded faces” that hold struggling prey away from their eyes and faces. They vary in size from three-quarters of an inch to an inch and one half in length. Their powerful wings beat much faster than bees and wasps, thus allowing them to fly in straighter lines and make sharper turns.

Adult female robber fly

Robber flies are territorial, with each choosing an optimal perching site from which to locate potential prey. Although the height of that site varies between species, it is most often located in an open, sunny location. These strong flyers are the “hawks” of the insect world, capable of capturing insects much larger than themselves. Using their acute vision, the robber flies survey the area from their sunny vantage point, attempting to locate potential prey. Upon spotting a potential victim, they swiftly dart out and nab it with their forefeet, while simultaneously impaling it with their stout beaks. The beaks are ringed with stiff bristles that securely lock in the wound. Once impaled, the victim is injected with a mixture of paralyzing neurotoxins and proteolytic enzymes that liquefy its tissues. Most of the prey is captured on the wing. Since robber flies are opportunists, most insects, including flies, bees, beetles, grasshoppers, moths, butterflies and even dragonflies, are potential meals. In some cases they even eat members of their own species, including potential mates. Some robber fly species show preferences for specific insects. Those with a taste for honeybees are often called “bee-killers” and present a critical nuisance for beekeepers.

Depending upon the species, female robber flies deposit their small, whitish eggs on plants, bark or wood. Some use their long, tapering abdomens to oviposit their eggs directly into the soil. Most lay their eggs in large masses and cover them with a chalk-like material. Although not much is known about the larvae, many are predators, feeding on the eggs and larvae of other insects. In fact some have been noted to have a positive impact controlling the population of destructive beetle grubs and consuming grasshopper eggs. Robber flies overwinter in the soil as larvae, pupating and emerging as adults in late spring. Mating occurs shortly after emergence. Dependent upon species and environmental conditions, their life cycle may last from one to three years.

Depending on your perspective and occupation, these aggressive robber flies are of varying desirability. When they consume pesky flies, biting mosquitoes and destructive beetles, they are beneficial friends, sometimes called assassin flies. But if they devastate honeybees and other useful pollinators, they are referred to as “bee killers” and are considered undesired felons. Fortunately, when left alone, nature has a way of balancing things out and giving each of its creatures an appropriate role in our world. Questions, comments and suggestions regarding this article, identifications or any other insect-related matters are welcome. Please email them to

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Dear Dolly,

Dear Dolly,

I have been sent two chain letters in the past two days. How can I let my friends know I don't want to participate in any more chain letters, without looking like an uncaring jerk and making folks mad at me? -Patty

Dear Patty,

One would like to think that chain letters are started with the best of intentions, but I agree with you, I hate to receive one. What I have started doing is to immediately return the chain letter to the person who sent it to me. This works for email as well as US mail. I enclose a note that reads:

"Dear_____. I love that you think of me, but when I receive a chain letter it just makes me cringe - especially when it's for a good cause. I feel strongly about this and I hesitate to burden my friends by passing it on to them as requested in every chain letter. For this reason, I am returning this letter, so that you may forward it to someone who will not break the chain."

Dear Dolly,

The leaves on my tomato plants have started turning yellow. I'm keeping them watered and have used a granular time release fertilizer. They were really coming along nice. -Paul

Dear Paul,

Sounds to me like you need to add dolomite lime to your soil. Use about 2 cups of the fine powder and thoroughly mix it into the top two or three inches of soil. Treat the area from the stem to about 12 inches out from your plant. Be careful not to get lime on the stem and don't disturb the roots of the plant. Water this in with a gentle spray after you're sure it is thoroughly mixed with the garden soil. Nothing tastes better than a ripe, warm from the sun, home grown tomato! Next year, add the lime before you add the plant.

All Transcript subscribers are welcome to submit their questions to Dear Dolly at

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From the Editors of E/The Environmental Magazine

Dear EarthTalk: Is it true that military sonar exercises actually kill marine wildlife?

Unfortunately for many whales, dolphins and other marine life, the use of underwater sonar (short for sound navigation and ranging) can lead to injury and even death. Sonar systems - first developed by the U.S. Navy to detect enemy submarines - generate slow-rolling sound waves topping out at around 235 decibels; the world’s loudest rock bands top out at only 130. These sound waves can travel for hundreds of miles under water, and can retain an intensity of 140 decibels as far as 300 miles from their source.

These rolling walls of noise are no doubt too much for some marine wildlife. While little is known about any direct physiological effects of sonar waves on marine species, evidence shows that whales will swim hundreds of miles, rapidly change their depth (sometime leading to bleeding from the eyes and ears), and even beach themselves to get away from the sounds of sonar.

In January 2005, 34 whales of three different species became stranded and died along North Carolina’s Outer Banks during nearby offshore Navy sonar training. Other sad examples around the coast of the U.S. and elsewhere abound, notably in recent years with more sonar testing going on than ever before. According to the nonprofit Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), which has campaigned vigorously to ban use of the technology in waters rich in marine wildlife, recent cases of whale strandings likely represent a small fraction of sonar’s toll, given that severely injured animals rarely make it to shore.

In 2003, NRDC spearheaded a successful lawsuit against the Navy to restrict the use of low-frequency sonar off the coast of California. Two years later a coalition of green groups led by NRDC and including the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW), the League for Coastal Protection, Cetacean Society International, and Ocean Futures Society upped the ante, asking the federal courts to also restrict testing of more intense, harmful and far ranging mid-frequency types of sonar off Southern California’s coastline.

In filing their brief, the groups cited Navy documents which estimated that such testing would kill some 170,000 marine mammals and cause permanent injury to more than 500 whales, not to mention temporary deafness for at least 8,000 others. Coalition lawyers argued that the Navy’s testing was in violation of the National Environmental Policy Act, the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered Species Act.

Two lower courts upheld NRDC’s claims, but the Supreme Court ruled that the Navy should be allowed to continue the use of some mid-frequency sonar testing for the sake of national security. “The decision places marine mammals at greater risk of serious and needless harm,” says NRDC’s Joel Reynolds.

Environmental groups are still fighting the battle against the sonar, lobbying the government to curtail testing, at least during peacetime, or to at least ramp up testing gradually to give marine wildlife a better chance to flee affected areas. “The U.S. Navy could use a number of proven methods to avoid harming whales when testing mid-frequency sonar,” reports IFAW’s Fred O'Regan. “Protecting whales and preserving national security are not mutually exclusive.”


Dear EarthTalk: How does the microwave compare in energy use, say, to using a gas or electric stove burner to heat water for a cup of tea?

The short answer is that it depends upon several variables, including the price of electricity versus gas, and the relative efficiency of the appliances involved. Typically, though, a microwave would be slightly more efficient at heating water than the flame on a gas stove, and should use up a little less energy. The reason: The microwave’s heat waves are focused on the liquid (or food) inside, not on heating the air or container around it, meaning that most if not all of the energy generated is used to make your water ready.

Given this logic, it is hard to believe that a burner element on an electric stovetop would be any better, but an analysis by Home Energy Magazine found otherwise. The magazine’s researchers discovered that an electric burner uses about 25 percent less electricity than a microwave in boiling a cup of water.

That said, the difference in energy saved by using one method over another is negligible: Choosing the most efficient process might save a heavy tea drinker a dollar or so a year. “You’d save more energy over the year by replacing one light bulb with a CFL [compact fluorescent lightbulb] or turning off the air conditioner for an hour - not an hour a day, one hour at some point over the whole year,” says consumer advocate Michael Bluejay.

Although a microwave may not save much energy or money over a stove burner when heating water, it can be much more energy-efficient than a traditional full-size oven when it comes to cooking food. For starters, because their heat waves are concentrated on the food, microwaves cook and heat much faster than traditional ovens. According to the federal government’s Energy Star program, which rates appliances based on their energy-efficiency, cooking or re-heating small portions of food in the microwave can save as much as 80 percent of the energy used to cook or warm them up in the oven.

The website reports that there are other things you can do to optimize your energy efficiency around the kitchen when cooking. For starters, make sure to keep the inside surfaces of your microwave oven clean so as to maximize the amount of energy reflected toward your food. On a gas stovetop, make sure the flame is fully below the cookware; likewise, on an electric stovetop, make sure the pan or kettle completely covers the heating element to minimize wasted heat. Also, use the appropriate size pan for the job at hand, as smaller pans are cheaper and more energy-efficient to heat up.

Despite these tips for cooking greener, Bluejay reiterates that most of us will hardly put a dent in our overall energy use just by choosing one appliance over another. According to his analysis, for someone who bakes three hours a week the cheapest cooking method saves only an estimated $2.06/month compared to the most expensive method.

“Focusing on cooking methods is not the way to save electricity [at home],” says Bluejay. “You should look at heating, cooling, lighting and laundry instead.”

CONTACTS: Home Energy Magazine,; Treehugger,; Michael Bluejay,

Send Your Environmental Questions To: EarthTalk, P.O. Box 5098, Westport, CT 06881; Read past columns at:

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Barnes-Kasson Corner
By Cara Sepcoskiw

National Group B Strep Awareness Week

July 26 - August 1

Barnes-Kasson Hospital is observing National Group B Strep Awareness Week July 26 through August 1.

Group B Strep (GBS) is a natural, normal bacteria found in 1 in 4 women. This normal bacterium usually goes unnoticed by its carriers, because it presents itself with little or no symptoms. However, when a woman becomes pregnant, other complications from the bacteria arise. GBS most commonly causes infection in the blood (sepsis), the fluid and lining of the brain (meningitis), and lungs (pneumonia). If a baby is exposed to Group B Strep during birth or while in the womb, they can be miscarried, stillborn, or die after being born. Some survivors of GBS develop permanent handicaps, such as mental retardation, blindness, deafness or cerebral palsy.

80% of all cases of GBS among newborns occur in the first week of life. This is called early onset disease. Most of these babies are presently ill within a few hours after birth. GBS may also develop in infants one week to six months after birth. This is called late onset disease. Meningitis is known to strike with late onset GBS disease. About half of late onset GBS disease can be linked to a mother who is colonized with GBS; but the source of infection for other babies with late onset GBS disease is unknown.

It is now the standard of care in the USA and Canada for all pregnant women to be tested for GBS at 35 to 37 weeks of pregnancy. The test is very simple, and the results are usually available within two to three days. This test is considered the "Gold Standard" - it is the best GBS screening available to date. It is usually very accurate, and catches approximately 95% of those who have the bacteria. If a mother did not have a test done at 37 weeks, or if she is in labor before the results arrive, a rapid screening test is available. This test can give the results within an hour, but is not as accurate as the “Gold Standard” test.

A positive test result means that the mother is colonized with the GBS bacteria. It does not mean that she has Group B Strep disease or that her baby will become ill. Rather, a positive test means that a woman and her doctor need to plan for her labor and delivery with this test result in mind. The results of a GBS test should be available at delivery. If they are not available, a woman should not hesitate to tell a doctor or nurse her results as soon as she arrives in Labor and Delivery.

GBS disease can be prevented in both mother and child, but precautionary actions must take place. Giving antibiotics through a vein during labor and delivery to women who have a positive GBS test effectively prevents most GBS infections in women and their newborns. For the best protection, the mother should receive intravenous antibiotics at least 4 to 6 hours before delivery; the longer a mother is given the antibiotics, the more the risk factor decreases.

If you are expecting, remember to ask your doctor about testing for GBS.

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