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Issue Home April 2, 2008 Site Home

100 Years Ago
From the Desk of the D.A.
The Healthy Geezer
Straight From Starrucca
Veterans’ Corner
What’s Bugging You?
Food For Thought
Earth Talk

100 Years Ago

FOREST CITY: William Pentecost, of Prompton [Wayne County], was a visitor here today. Mr. Pentecost at one time had large lumber interests here and the town was in fact known by the name of Pentecost for some years. He carries his years well. AND: The Drum Corps has reorganized again and will appear in grand old style at the fair to be held by the Enterprise Hose company.

GELATT: C. J. Gelatt and wife and two small children started for Susquehanna Friday, and when near A. W. Conrad’s the wagon caught in a bad place in a sluice and broke the whiffletree; the horses ran away, but no one was hurt, although the wagon was badly damaged.

LENOX: Lenox Grange No. 931 will have a debate at its next regular meeting, April 4. The question is, “Resolved, that we learn more from observation than from books.” Members are urged to attend. AND: Mrs. Walter Ransom is said to be somewhat better, but is still dangerously ill with but slight hopes of her recovery.

BROOKLYN: H. A. Tewksbury has one of the finest and pleasantest sugar camps in this vicinity, situated about a half mile west of the village. One day last week he made 11 gallons of syrup, weighing 12 ½ lbs per gallon, in 8 hours boiling. AND: Dr. A. J. Ainey is kept on the road most of the time to attend to his large practice. For the past 40 years Dr. Ainey has been located in Brooklyn and in that time has built up a reputation and practice second to none in the country, and now, when he would gladly take his well-earned rest, the duties multiply.

GREAT BEND: Burns & Crosier, of Thompson, are putting in a new style of gasoline lamp in the W. J. Day block on Main street.

MONTROSE: The Beach foundry, conducted by H. W. Beach, has been sold to B. F. McKeage, Jr. and J. R. McKeage, of Chicago, sons of Mr. and Mrs. B. F. McKeage, of this place. The sale was consummated yesterday afternoon, but negotiations had been in progress for some time. It is the intention of the new management to take over the plant in the very near future, enlarge and improve it and expand the business. The output of the foundry consists largely of the Beach sawing machinery, which is widely known on this continent, as well as in foreign countries, considerable being exported. It is understood Mr. Beach has received other good offers from parties who wished to remove the works, but waived them aside in favor of those who would keep this industry employing some thirty men, in Montrose.

SPRINGVILLE: The traveling public will hail with delight the opening of a new road up Kasson Hill, which is now an assured fact.

CLIFFORD: This is the hottest political campaign seen in this “neck o’ the woods” in some time. The people are going to vote the way they feel and nominate the men they want, and don’t you forget it. Clifford has not been represented at the county capital in many years, but now we come forward and present one of her sons, W. G. Morgan, for county treasurer. Mr. Morgan has a good record as collector of taxes for 17 successive years, with a full settlement on auditing day every year. This is surely a good recommend for him as the custodian of the county’s finances for a term of three years. Then just notice another aspirant for office—T. J. Davies for president judge—who is also one of Clifford’s sons. T. J. will get many votes from his old associates and friends in his home town and will do honor to the county if elected to the office which he seeks.

HERRICK CENTRE: Recently the ice in the creek broke up and jammed up above the bridge. They had to use dynamite to break it up.

FRIENDSVILLE: T. V. Byrne was the successful aspirant for R. F. D. honors at the recent examination—97 ½ percent. He will take charge of Route No. 1 from this place April 1.

DIMOCK: Work has again opened at the Chase Quarry, with a large force of men and teams.

KINGSLEY: Mr. and Mrs. J. R. Alexander went to Dansville, N.Y. on Saturday night, where Mr. Alexander will receive treatment in a sanitarium.

UNIONDALE: L. P. Norton is having his buggy newly painted. He thinks it is going to be a shiner. Glen Tennant is handling the brush. Mr. Tennant has done the same thing on Newton Corey’s buggy. We think his horse sees the difference, the way it prances.

FOREST LAKE: Birdsall Bros. are doing a hustling business, cutting wood with their new machine.

AUBURN FOUR CORNERS: A number from this place attended the commencement exercises at Auburn Center on Wednesday evening. Two of our popular young people, Miss Hazel Smith and Tracy Bushnell, were among the graduates. At Shannon Hill, Susie Swackamer closed her term of school and Bessie Shannon closed one at Bennett Corners the same day.

NEWS BRIEFS: In a few months the letters D. L. and W. will entirely disappear from all the cars and engines of that railroad and the word Lackawanna takes their place. AND: More pensioners died during the past year than fought on either side at the famous battle of Shiloh in 1862. This was the statement made in Congress recently when the $150,000,000 general pension bill was up for passage. It was shown that 45,768 names had been stricken from the nation’s rolls by death. Of this number 31,201 were Civil War veterans. It was predicted that in nine years Civil War veterans will be as scarce as are Mexican War veterans today. AND: Candidates for the various offices, especially County Commissioner, are as thick as black berries in August; you meet them here, there and everywhere. What a change it makes in us all when we get the political bee buzzing in our bonnets—how it clarifies our visions, we give him the glad hand, we inquire about his Uncle and his Aunt, we ask him up to have “something,” we fill his pockets with “two fers,” send a dime’s worth of stick candy to the kids and tell him when in town to be sure and drop in and see us without fail. But what a change in the morning after election, we become near sighted, can’t see our voter and if we happen to meet we give him the marble hand and icy stare—“What fools we mortals be.”

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From the Desk of the D.A.
By District Attorney Jason J. Legg

A little after midnight on September 16, 2007, several employees at the McDonald’s Restaurant in Hallstead observed an intoxicated driver at the drive-through window. The driver passed out in his vehicle while waiting for his meal. The driver was clearly intoxicated. An employee went outside to wake the driver up and give him his food. After waking the driver up, the employee asked him to pull over, park his vehicle, eat his food, and sleep it off. The defendant did not listen – he drove away, heading south on Route 11. A short time later, the driver crossed the yellow line, entering the northbound lane, and struck head-on another automobile. The defendant was arrested for driving under the influence – and it was his second offense, as he had a prior DUI in 1999.

At his sentencing hearing, the victim prepared a written statement which was read into the record. The victim was too emotional to read the words herself, so her mother actually took the witness stand and read the statement into the record. The emotion, trauma and pain that were captured in her words were a stark reminder of the consequences of driving under the influence of alcohol. As I listened to her words, I wished that more people could hear them, with the hope that it might deter someone else from driving drunk. At the conclusion of the sentencing, I asked the victim if I might reproduce a portion of her statement in this column, and she graciously agreed. While I have done some minor editing, the bulk of what follows are the words of the victim of that DUI crash:

“I am still not sure when the accident happened, due to some short-term memory loss. On that chilly night, everything in my life changed in seconds when I saw you cross the double yellow line right into the front of my car. At that moment, everything in my life shattered.

“I remember I was listening to Alan Jackson and then – the music stopped and all I heard was my screeching tires, crunching metal, breaking glass, and hearing myself screaming, ‘God help me!’ Then silence. At that moment, I did not know if I was dead or alive, with all of the smoke surrounding my swollen face from the airbags and the pressure in my chest from the seatbelt I was wearing.

“My second thought was about you. The same thought crossed my mind – I did not know if you were dead or alive. When I finally realized that I was very much alive, I needed to get out of my car. I struggled for minutes to free myself, so I could get to you – to make sure you were OK. It was dark and smoky outside, then the smoke cleared and I saw your back to me with your hands on your head. You knew what you had done. It was quite obvious to me that you were ‘loaded.’ Loaded is a commonly used word to describe a person who is drunk.

“Although you were drunk, I say you were loaded – loaded with rage. I could tell you were no gentleman. For one, you did not even help me get out of my car; you were more concerned about not getting caught in your drunken stupor. At that time, I was on the phone with my dad to send help. While trying to talk, you finally saw me and came at me and backed me up to my car, grabbing me by the arms yelling, ‘Look what you did to my car!’ While you tried to contend there was another driver, the police arrived and verified that you were the driver.

“After a long ambulance ride and all the X-rays at the hospital, the news was good, no broken bones, just minor cuts and bruises. The nurses explained to me some pain management and discharge instructions.

“But no one could explain to me what was coming in the next three weeks. I soon discovered that I had “whiplash” and that some bones were out of place. I began to miss work, and, when I returned, it was with restrictions. Everything started to change. I had no car, and I could not sleep without nightmares. I got help and discovered that I am suffering from post traumatic stress disorder and depression.

“It has been over six months, and I am still not up to par. Although my nightmares have stopped, I’ve missed at least 20 days of work (unpaid), my life savings and my college fund is gone – due to unexpected bills, like buying a new car. I lost my position as a supervisor at work, and now only work part-time. The other time has been sitting in waiting rooms to meet chiropractors, massage therapists, medical doctors, social workers, and psychologists. This is my full-time job – being a patient. I’ve never experienced pain like this.

“We are here today for your sentencing – to see what your future will be. No one has that answer for me. I came here today for peace of mind – to help me get over my fears that all started that night of the accident. I’m done thinking about you. This could have all been avoided if you had made a better decision. So, thank you for showing me what drunk drivers are capable of doing! I thought I might like seeing you in the hot seat when the judge tells you your sentence, but instead my only revenge towards you will be for me to live well.”

Please submit any questions, concerns, or comments to Susquehanna County District Attorney’s Office, P.O. Box 218, Montrose, Pennsylvania 18801 or at

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The Healthy Geezer
By Fred Cicetti

Q. I baby-sit quite a bit for my infant grandson and this interferes with my naps. I’m tired all the time when he’s around. Does giving up a nap affect your health?

My mother has a valuable tip for you. Nap when your grandson naps. That’s what she did with her children and grandchildren. In fact, since she was a girl, she has napped almost every day. Her other habits are not the healthiest, but she has known how to rest. And she’s 89.

In a study published in The Archives of Internal Medicine, researchers found that people who napped regularly had a 37 percent lower coronary death rate than those who never napped. The study was done on more than 23,000 Greek men and women ages 20 to 86.

The curiosity of the study’s authors was piqued by low rates of heart disease in European and Latin American countries where siestas are an integral part of their lifestyles.

Another study published in Annals of Emergency Medicine provided evidence that nurses and doctors on night shifts perform better when they take a nap at work.

“There is a belief that people who nap are lazy, and that attitude needs to change,” said Dr. Rebecca Smith-Coggins of Stanford University, the lead author of the study. “Naps are a powerful and inexpensive way to improve work.”

There have been many prominent nappers. These include Sir Winston Churchill, Thomas Edison, Napoleon Bonaparte, Albert Einstein, and John F. Kennedy.

Here’s a comment from Churchill: “You must sleep sometime between lunch and dinner, and no halfway measures,” he said. “Take off your clothes and get into bed. That's what I always do. Don't think you will be doing less work because you sleep during the day. That's a foolish notion held by people who have no imaginations. You will be able to accomplish more. You get two days in one – well, at least one and a half.”

Churchill had abominable health habits. He was a heavy drinker and he smoked about 10 cigars a day his entire adult life. He lived to be 90.

A NASA sleep study to help astronauts function better demonstrated that 24-minute naps significantly improved alertness and performance.

Dr. David Dinges, a sleep researcher at the University of Pennsylvania, advocates “power naps” to counter sleep deprivation. He says that insufficient sleep causes “micro-sleeps,” involuntary dozing that causes accidents.

Sleep experts divide naps into brief snoozes that revive the brain, and long ones to compensate for major sleep loss. A pick-me-up nap should be no longer than a half-hour. If you sleep beyond a half-hour, your body will drop into a deep sleep. When you get up from deep sleep, you can feel groggy for a while.

Here are some nap tips:

When you feel like you need a coffee break, take a nap.

Don’t nap in the late afternoon because you can shift your biological clock; this will make it harder to fall asleep at night and rise the next morning.

Try to take your nap about the same time each day – about eight hours before you go to bed for the night.

If you don’t want to nap a long time, set an alarm.

In the hour or two before your nap time, eat foods high in calcium and protein, which promote sleep.

Try to nap in the dark. Darkness stimulates melatonin, the sleep- inducing hormone.

Remember that your body temperature drops when you fall asleep. So, pull a blanket over you, even if you don’t feel cold when you begin your nap.

If you have a question, please write to

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Straight From Starrucca
By Danielle Williams

No Straight From Starrucca This Week

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Veterans’ Corner

No Veterans' Corner This Week

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What’s Bugging You?
By Stuart W. Slocum

Caddisflies: real homebodies

As an inquisitive youngster, I remember staring with amazement at a stick crawling about the bottom of a clear pool in a small stream near my home. This tiny, half-inch long twig appeared to have a head and legs. Later, I learned that this intriguing phenomenon was actually an aquatic insect larva, commonly called a caddisfly. Fly fishermen frequently refer to caddisflies as sedges. Although many people have never observed a caddisfly, there currently are more than 1,300 identified species in North America.

(larva and cases)

The caddisfly in its larva stage, along with some of the unique cases they construct.

Spending their entire juvenile life in an aquatic environment (especially streams), caddisflies construct unique cases from pieces of leaves, hollowed-out twigs, small stones and granules of sand. A few species of caddisflies only create silken webs. The adults, which are moth-like, are mostly nocturnal and not frequently seen. Caddisflies belong to the insect order Trichoptera, which translated from Greek roughly means “hairy wings.” This refers to the adults whose wings have a fuzzy texture. The common name, caddis, comes from an old English term – cadice, which refers to traveling salesmen who, for advertisement, attached all sorts of fabric samples to their clothing. This is a reference to the way the larvae stick things together to make their cases. The caddisfly larvae vary in size from a fraction of an inch to about one and one half inches in length. They resemble butterfly/moth caterpillars but lack any visible antennae. Their head and thorax are covered with thick, hardened cuticle plates. There are three pairs of segmented legs attached to their thorax. Most species have either single or branched gills located on the abdomen.


The caddisfly in its adult stage.

As previously discussed, most of the larvae construct and inhabit some type of case, which is later attached to the stream substrate. Not only is there variation in the case material and structure, but also in the way that the larvae either replace or modify the case as they grow larger. Some of the caddis larvae, which do not construct cases, spin tiny spider-like webs that collect plankton and other macroinvertebrates upon which they feed. A few species are free drifting predators that do not construct any cases or webs. These free drifting specimens are especially important food sources for many trout. Certain species of caddisflies chew leaf fragments into small triangular-shaped pieces that they glue together into elongated, triangular tubes. Others merely hollow out a small stem segment and move in. In addition, some species cement together tiny grains of sand to form a “cement sluice pipe.” Particularly intriguing about these various cases is the fact that every member of the same species makes an identical case using the same materials and sequence of steps. The construction of these identical abodes is akin to birds where every member of the same species creates an identifiable, identical nest. The degree of recreated details is amazing. For example, if a certain species used 22 small stones with a large pebble on top or a tube of small sand grains with a long twig cemented to the top and a short twig glued to the bottom, then every case of every individual would be constructed that way. The repeated replication among species is exacting and incredible.

These cases not only provide physical protection, but also camouflage the caddis larvae from potential predators. However, trout easily recognize a tasty meal when they see it and will consume the larvae, case and all. The larvae remain attached by a silken thread and drag their case with them wherever they travel. The overall buoyancy of the case, coupled with its aerodynamic design, provides minimal resistance to its movement. Some species prefer to remain in one location and catch whatever food drifts their way. These caddisfly larvae attach themselves or their cases to large rocks, plants or wooden debris in the water. Still others use heavy enough pebbles in their cases to stay anchored in the water. Although most caddisflies live in cool, flowing waters that are rich in dissolved oxygen, some are able to survive in warmer, more oxygen deplete environs. These individuals create their own current and oxygen supply by undulating their bodies inside the cylindrical cases in such a manner as to act like a pump, pulling water in from one end of the case and pushing it out the other.

The complete life cycle of caddisflies varies from one to two years. Usually there is only one generation per year. Most mature and emerge as adults sometime between late spring and early fall. The eggs, numbering from just a few to nearly a thousand, are deposited in the water as a soft, gelatinous mass or sometimes individually. Often bright colored, the eggs can vary in shape from spherical, to elliptical or even doughnut-shaped. While some female caddis species just drop their eggs on the water surface, others dive or crawl beneath the water surface to deposit their eggs directly on stones or submerged vegetation. These females appear shiny underwater because of the air bubbles that are trapped among the hairs on their wings. Such actions often catch the eye of hungry trout, resulting in a feeding frenzy. Lucky is the fisherman who witnesses such an event and has an appropriate wet fly in his tackle box. A few species lay eggs on surface vegetation. When those eggs hatch, they must immediately drop into the water or perish. Most all caddis eggs hatch within several weeks, although some eggs, which are presented with adverse conditions, can go into a specialized resting period (called diapause). This survival technique can keep the eggs viable for up to 10 months. Most larval stages last 2 to 3 months, with the most activity occurring during the winter. All caddisfly larvae shed their skins as they grow, usually about 5 times. Upon reaching the last larval stage, the caddisfly prepares to pupate by constructing a silken cocoon within its case and then proceeds to attach it to an immovable submersed object. The case is often modified so as to allow water circulation while barring entry to potential predators. This is accomplished by blocking the front entrance to the case and spinning a silk “screen door” for the rear opening. Once sealed inside the cocoon, the mature larvae “rest” for several weeks before shedding its skin and emerging as a pupa. This stage, lasting 2 to 3 weeks, ends with the pupa cutting through the cocoon and floating to the water surface where the newly formed adult caddis fly emerges and flies to nearby vegetation. These adults usually remain in that area, unless lured away to nearby lights. Resting, often upside down during the day, the adults primarily feed on nectar or other liquids at night. Their mouthparts are only designed for the sponging up of liquids. As in other aquatic insects, mating occurs in male-dominated swarms. The females appear to only be attracted to these swarms by visual contact.

Rarely a serious pest, caddisflies tend to be overlooked. Occasionally, during a hatch, a significant number of adults may be attracted to strong lights located near a stream. This can be an annoyance at ball fields, swimming pools and playgrounds. There are records of caddisflies getting stuck in a fresh paint job, creating a fuzzy mess. Rarely, people are allergic to the caddisfly’s minute hairs that have broken off their wings and somehow circulated through the air. The larvae are important inhabitants of freshwater ecosystems. The caddisfly larva’s habit of shredding vegetative debris into portions small enough for other, smaller organisms is an important ingredient of the aquatic food chain. Caddisfly larvae themselves are important food sources for many fish. The emerged adults are relished by numerous bird species such as swallows. Like the stoneflies, caddisflies are sensitive to pollution. The population and number of caddisfly species are important indicators for determining the environmental condition of a freshwater body. However, there are some exceptions since a few caddisfly species are tolerant of polluted waters. Fly fishermen are dedicated fans of the caddisflies. Careful observation of what’s happening in the water, whether it’s the surfacing pupae or the diving females, can prompt the astute trout fisherman to tie on “spotted sedge” and go home with his limit. In total, the caddisfly is an anonymous benefactor to a healthy, aquatic environment.

For anyone interested in learning more about caddisflies or other aquatic insects I will be leading a nature walk, focusing on aquatic insects, at the Florence Shelly Wetlands on Sunday, April 6. The walk will begin at the Stack Road parking lot at 2:00 p.m. Questions, comments and suggestions regarding this article or any other insect related matters are welcome. Please email them to

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Food For Thought
By Lauretta L. Clowes DC

No Food For Thought This Week

From the Editors of E/The Environmental Magazine

No Earth Talk This Week

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